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AP Psych: Chapter 13- Cognition
Terms in this set (37)
Discuss how concepts simplify cognition.
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people
Explain how a prototype aids in the formation of concepts
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories
Discuss and give an example of how algorithms differ from heuristics as problem-solving strategies
Algorithms: methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with usually speedier, but also error prone heuristics
Heuristics: simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently
How does insight relate to problem solving?
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; contrasts with strategy based solutions
Explain how the processes of convergent and divergent thinking contribute to creativity
Convergent: single correct answer, as with intelligence tests
Divergent: creativity tests
How do intelligence and creativity co-mingle to impact one's success?
Certain levels of aptitude are necessary, but not sufficient for creativity
Briefly explain the components that make up creativity
1. Expertise: well-developed base of knowledge
2. Imaginative Thinking Skills: ability to see things in novel ways, recognize patterns and make connections
3. Venturesome Personality: seeks new experiences
4. Intrinsic Motivation: driven by internal rather than external motivation
5. Creative Environment: sparks, supports, refines creative ideas
Explain, using definitions, the ways in which confirmation bias and mental set can impede the ability to problem solve
Confirmation Bias: a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
Mental Set: a tendency to approach a problem in one
particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
How does the concept of overconfidence influence your decisions or judgements in both helpful and detrimental ways?
The tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements.
clinging to ones initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
How does intuition fit into the larger discussion of cognition? What does it mean that intuition is often implicit?
An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
Explain the power of framing in influencing our cognitions.
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
Explain how phonemes differ from morphemes
Phonemes: in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
Morphemes: in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; word or part of a word- prefix
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given lagnuage
The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language. Also, the study of meaning.
Explain how infants develop receptive language. How is this different from productive language?
Receptive: the ability to comprehend speech by about four months of age
Productive: the ability to produce words
List and describe the stages involved in productive language.
1. Babbling Stage: stage of speech development when infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
2. One-Word Stage: about 1-2 years, speech in mostly single words
3. Two-Word Stage: child speaks mostly two-word statements
4. Telegraphic speech: early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs
What is B.F. Skinner's view of how children acquire language?
-association (sights of things with sounds of words)
-imitation (words and syntax modeled by others)
-reinforcement (smiling and hugging child when saying something right)
Briefly address Noam Chomsky's view regarding how children acquire language
Universal grammar (all human languages contain nouns, verbs, and adjectives and humans are born with innate ability to acquire language and a genetic predisposition to learn grammatical rule
What does current research reveal about the importance of the critical period in language development?
Children who have not been exposed to language during their early years gradually lose ability to master any language
-when a young brain does not learn any language, its language learning capacity never fully develops
How is multilingualism best taught?
to start teaching and exposing the child to multiple languages at a young age
Explain Whorf's linguistic determinism and discuss why it may be too extreme of a hypothesis in explaining the relationship between language and thinking
Believed language did more than describe person's culture, that it shapes a person's thoughts and perceptions, ideas
What evidence does the text provide that we may interpret the world differently because of our language?
-languages change how people think of themselves
-languages influence personality traits
In what situations might we tend to think in images? Discuss how thinking in images can be valuable and what the limitations might be.
Visualizing how to do something
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, communicating and remembering
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective by employing a different mental set
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Recommended textbook explanations
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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