Biology II Final Exam
Terms in this set (104)
regulates solute conc. and balances gain and loss of water
gets rid of nitrogenous metabolites and other waste products
Osmoregulation is based largely on:
controlled movement of solutes between internal fluids and the external environment
the solute concentration of a solution
What does osmolarity do?
determines the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane
the movement of water is equal in both directions
If two solutions differ in osmolarity, the net flow of water is
from the hypoosmotic to the hyperosmotic solution
Transport epithelia are:
epithelial cells that are specialized for moving solutes in specific directions
Animals excrete nitrogenous wastes in different forms:
ammonia, urea or uric acid
The liver converts ammonia to less toxic:
The circulatory system carries urea to
the kidneys, where it is excreted
Uric acid is relatively...
nontoxic and doesn't dissolve readily in water
Key functions of most excretory systems:
Filtration, Reabsorption, Secretion, Excretion
filtering of body fluids
reclaiming valuable solutes
adding nonessential solutes from body fluids to filtrate
processed filtrate with nitrogenous wastes, released from body
A protonephridium is:
a network of dead-end tubules connected to external openings
Each segment of an earthworm has a pair of open-ended ____________________________.
Kidneys function in both:
osmoregulation & excretion
Reabsorption of ions, water, and nutrients takes place in the
Reabsorption of water continues through channels formed by:
In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, salt but not water is able to diffuse from the
tubule into the interstitial fluid
The distal tubule regulates the...
K+ and NaCl concentrations of body fluids
The two primary solutes affecting osmolarity are
NaCl and urea
The countercurrent multiplier system involving the loop of Henle maintains
a high salt concentration in the kidney
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) makes the collecting duct epithelium more...
permeable to water
^ in osmolarity = ?
release of ADH
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is part of
a complex feedback circuit that functions in homeostasis
Drop in blood pressure = ?
the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) to release the enzyme renin
triggers the formation of the peptide angiotensin II
Stimulates the release of the hormone aldosterone, which increases blood volume and pressure
Another hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP),
opposes the RAAS
organs that produce gametes
Male gonads and female gonads?
testes and ovaries
FSH promotes the activity of:
Sertoli cells, which nourish developing sperm
LH regulates Leydig cells, which secrete:
estosterone and other androgens, which promote spermatogenesis
Testosterone regulates the production of:
GnRH, FSH, and LH through negative feedback mechanisms
Sertoli cells secrete the hormone
hormone inhibin, which reduces FSH secretion from the anterior pituitary
In females, the secretion of hormones and the reproductive events they regulate are
Before ovulation, the endometrium thickens with blood vessels to prepare for
If an embryo does not implant in the endometrium, the endometrium is shed in a process called
Changes in the uterus define the:
menstrual cycle (also called the uterine cycle)
Changes in the ovaries define the:
In the OVARIAN cycle: The sequential release of _________, then ______ and _______ stimulate follicle growth
The sequential release of GnRH then FSH and LH stimulates follicle growth
Follicle growth and an increase in the hormone _________________ characterize the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle
The follicular phase ends at ovulation, and the secondary:
secondary oocyte is released!
In the luteal phase, following ovulation, the follicular tissue left behind is
stimulated to transform into a corpus luteum
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estradiol, which exert negative feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary
progesterone and estradiol, which exert negative feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary
What type of feedback do progesterone and estradiol give on the hypothalamus and pituitary?
In the MENSTRUAL (UTERINE) cycle:
Thickening of endometrium during the proliferative phase coordinates with
the follicular phase
Secretion of nutrients during secretory phase coordinates with the luteal phase coordinates with
the luteal phase
Shedding of endometrium during the menstrual flow phase coordinates with:
growth of new ovarian follicles
if no embryo implants in the endometrium, then
A new cycle begins
Cells of the uterine lining can sometimes migrate to an abnormal, or:
Swelling of these cells in response to hormone stimulation results in a disorder called:
After about 500 cycles, human females undergo
What is menopause?
the cessation of ovulation and menstruation
The sexual response cycle has four phases:
excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
What is conception? Where does it occur?
fertilization of an egg by a sperm, occurs in the oviduct
Division of cells gives rise to a:
blastocyst, a ball of cells with central cavity
What is a blastocyst?
a ball of cells with central cavity
After blastocyst formation, where does the embryo implant?
In the endometrium
Pregnancy, or gestation, is the condition of:
carrying one or more embryos in the uterus
The FIRST trimester is the time of...
most radical change for mother & embryo
The implanted embryo secretes hormones that...
regulate the mother's reproductive system
One such hormone is called:
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
What does hCG do?
maintains secretion of progesterone and estrogens during early pregnancy
During its first 2 to 4 weeks, the embryo obtains...
nutrients directly from the endometrium
Blood from the embryo travels to the placenta through
arteries of the umbilical cord, and returns via the umbilical vein
The first trimester is the main period of organogenesis, which is...
development of the body organs
By 8 weeks the embryo is:
During the SECOND trimester:
The fetus grows and is very:
The mother may feel:
Uterus grows, pregnancy becomes very:
During the third trimester, the fetus grows and fills the space within the embryonic membranes
within the embryonic membranes
a series of strong, rhythmic uterine contractions that push the fetus and placenta out of the body
Labor is regulated by prostaglandins and hormone such as:
estradiol and oxytocin
3 stages of labor:
dilation, expulsion, delivery
deliberate prevention of pregnancy
(condom, diaphragm, birth control pills, IUD)
Contraceptive method categories:
Preventing release of eggs and sperm
Keeping sperm and egg apart
Preventing implantation of embryo
A nerve net is a...
series of interconnected nerve cells
The CNS consists of a...
brain and longitudinal nerve cords
In vertebrates the CNS consists of:
The PNS (peripheral NS) consists of:
brain, spinal cord
nerves and ganglia
The spinal cord:
conveys info to brain;
nerve cord gives rise to the:
central canal and ventricles of brain
What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?
cushions the brain and spinal cord; gives nutrients and remove wastes
Gray matter consists of:
of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons
White matter consists of:
bundles of myelinated axons
Embryonic radial glia form...
tracks along which newly formed neurons migrate
Astrocytes induce cells lining capillaries in the CNS to form...
tight junctions, resulting in a blood-brain barrier
afferent neurons trasmit info...
efferent transmit info...
AWAY FROM CNS
PNS: Is made up of two parts:
Motor(voluntary) and autonomic systems(involuntary)
Autonomic consists of 3 parts:
SYMPATHETIC (fight or flight resp.), PARASYMPATHETIC (has effects on target organs), ENTERIC (digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder)
The core of the brainstem has a diffuse network of neurons called the...
Reticular formation regulates...
info that reaches cerebral cortex and affects alertness
What 4 things make up the limbic system? (emotions)
Amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, olfactory bulb
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
Frontal lobe function:
Parietal lobe function:
processing sensory information;
Temporal lobe function:
Occipital lobe function:
The differences in hemisphere function are called:
a form of learning called ________________________________ involves an increase in the strength of synaptic transmission
long-term potentiation (LTP); it involves glutamate receptors
schizophrenia, depression, drug addiction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease