Looking at Movies, 5th Ed., Ch. 6 Terms
Terms in this set (46)
the process of capturing moving images on film or a digital storage device.
One uninterrupted run of the camera. A shot can be as short or as long as the director wants, but it cannot exceed the length of the film stock in the camera. Compare setup.
the number of times a particular shot is taken.
One camera position and everything associated with it. Whereas the shot is the basic building block of the film, the setup is the basic component of the film's production.
The member of the camera crew who does the actual shooting.
Member of the camera crew who assists the camera operator. The first AC oversees everything having to do with the camera, lenses, supporting equipment, and the material on which the movie is being shot. The second AC prepares the slate that is used to identify each scene as it is being filmed, files camera reports, and feeds film stock into magazines to be loaded into the camera.
The board or other device that is used to identify each scene during shooting.
The chief electrician on a movie production set
First assistant electrician to the gaffer on a movie production set.
All-around handyperson on a movie production set, most often working with the camera and electrical crews.
Celluloid used to record movies. There are two types: one for black-and-white films and the other for color. Each type is manufactured in several standard formats.
also called gauge. The dimensions of a film stock and its perforations, and the size and shape of the image frame as seen on the screen. Formats extend from Super 8mm through 70mm and beyond, into such specialized formats as IMAX, but they are generally limited to three standard gauges: Super 8mm, 16mm, and 35mm.
Also known as film speed or exposure index. The rate at
which film must move through the camera to correctly capture an image. Very fast film requires little light to capture and fix the image, whereas very slow film requires a lot of light.
In postproduction, the process of altering and enhancing the color of a motion picture (or video or still image) with electronic, photochemical, or digital techniques.
A lamp that produces hard, mirrorlike light that can be directed to precise locations. Compare floodlight.
A lamp that produces soft (diffuse) light. Compare focusable spotlight.
employs three sources of light, each aimed from a different direction and position in relation to the subject.
Also known as main light or source light. The brightest light falling on a subject.
Lighting, positioned at the opposite side of the camera from the
key light, that can fill in the shadows created by the brighter key light.
Fill light may also come from a reflector board.
Lighting, usually positioned behind and in line with the subject and the camera, used to create highlights on the subject as a means of separating it from the background and increasing its appearance of three-dimensionality.
Lighting that creates strong contrasts; sharp dark shadows, and an overall gloomy atmosphere. Its contrasts between light and dark often imply ethical judgments. Compare high-key lighting.
lighting that produces an image with very little contrast between darks and lights. Its even, flat illumination expresses virtually no opinion about the subject being photographed. Compare low-key lighting.
The amount of human and physical resources devoted to the image, including the style of lighting. Production value helps determine the overall style of a film.
limits the amount of light passing through a lens
Depth of field
The distance in front of a camera and its lens, in which objects are in apparent sharp focus.
Any of three theoretical areas—foreground, middle ground, and background—within the frame. See also rule of thirds.
Also known as select focus, shift focus, or pull focus. A change of the point of focus from one subject to another within the same shot. Rack focus guides our attention to a new, clearly focused point of interest while blurring the previous subject in the shot.
A shot whose purpose is to briefly establish the viewer's sense of the setting of a scene—the relationship of figures in that scene to the environment around them. This shot is often, but not always, an extreme long shot. See master shot.
Extreme long shot
A shot that is typically photographed far enough away from the subject that the subject is too small to be recognized, except through the context we see, which usually includes a wide view of the location as well as a general background information. When it is used to provide such informative context, the
extreme long shot is also referred to as an establishing shot.
A shot that often shows a part of the body filling the frame—traditionally a face, but possibly, a hand, eye, or mouth.
Rule of thirds
A principle of composition that enables filmmakers to maximize the potential of the image, balance its elements, and create the illusion of depth. A grid pattern, when superimposed on the image, divides the image into horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middle ground, and background planes, and into vertical thirds that break up those planes into additional elements.
A shot that is made from the observer's eye level and usually implies that that the camera's attitude toward the subject being photographed is neutral.
Also known as high shot or down shot. A shot that is made with the camera above the action, and typically implies the observer's sense of superiority to the subject being photographed. Compare low-angle shot.
Also known as low shot. A shot that is made with the camera below the action, and typically places the observer in a
position of inferiority. Compare high-angle shot.
Also known as Dutch shot or oblique-angle shot. A shot in which the camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical positions so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.
Also known as bird's-eye-view shot. An omniscient point-of-view shot that is taken from an aircraft or extremely high crane and implies that the observer can see all.
The size and placement of a particular object or a part of a scene in relation to the rest—a relationship determined by the type of shot used and the placement of the camera.
The horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod; like the tilt shot, the pan shot is a simple movement with dynamic possibilities for creating meaning.
The vertical movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod. Like the pan shot, the tilt shot is a simple movement with dynamic possibilities for creating meaning.
Also known as traveling shot. A shot taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support called a dolly.
Slow movement of the camera toward a subject, making the subject appear larger and more significant. Such gradual intensification is commonly used at moments of a character's realization and/or decision, or as a point-of-view shot to indicate the reason for the character's realization. See also zoom in.
Movement of the camera away from the subject, often used for slow disclosure that occurs when an edited succession of images leads from shot A to B to C as they gradually reveal the elements of a scene. Each image expands on the one before, thereby changing its significance with new information.
When the dolly runs on tracks (or when the camera is mounted to a crane or an aerial device such as an airplane, a helicopter, or a balloon).
A shot that is created by movement of a camera mounted on an elevating arm (crane) that in turn is mounted on a vehicle that, if shooting requires it, can move on its own power or be pushed along tracks.
Also known as sequence shot . A shot that can last anywhere from 1 to 10 minutes. Between 1930 and 1960, the average length of a shot was 8 to 11 seconds; today, it's 6 to 7 seconds, signifying that directors are telling their stories with a tighter pace.
Also known as mocap, motion tracking, or performance capture. An elaborate process in which the movements of objects, or actors dressed in special suits, are recorded as data that computers subsequently use to render the motion of CGI characters on-screen.
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