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1st semester 7th grade science exam study guide completed

Sunset middle school, brentwood Ms. Grunwald 2012-2013 orange team class.
STUDY
PLAY
1. Ask a question
find something to research
2. Make observations
make observations on the topic (collect data on the topic [research])
3. Form a hypothesis
make if then statement using inferences from the observations made that gives a possible explanation (answer) to the question.
4. Test the hypothesis
design experiments that will clearly show whether a particular factor caused an observed outcome.
5. Analyze the results
organize your data and analyze the results.
6. Draw conclusions
decide whether your hypothesis was correct or not and explain why or why not. If your hypothesis is wrong try to come up with another possible solution and repeat steps 2-7.
7. Communicate Results
let other scientist know of your results. A wrong hypothesis is just as useful as a right hypothesis because either way it allows scientist to learn. If it doesn't work it is useful if everyone knows that because people won't have to repeat the experiments and they then can work together to find the answer. Also by telling people what you did, they can repeat the experiments and see if they get the same results.
Scientific Methods
a series of steps followed to solve problems
Observation
any information you gather through your senses.
Inference
a logical interpretation of an event that is based observations and prior knowledge.
Control Factors
The parts of the experiment that will remain the same. An example is 100 eggs.
Variables
There are two types of variables: The independent and dependent variable.
Independent variable
The variable that is controlled by the scientist.
Dependent variable.
the variable that might change because of what the scientist changes
Prototype
a test model of a product
Cost
benefit analysis - the process of determining whether the cost of doing something is worth the benefit provided.
Scientist
anyone who study's science.
Engineers
engineers use science and mathematics to create new technologies that serve human needs.
Engineering design process
the process engineers use to develop a new technology.
Intended benefits
An intended benefit is the positive purpose for which a technology is designed to be used.
Unintended benefits
Unintended consequences are uses or results that engineers do not purposely include in the design of products.
Example: the ability for people to have food not native to the area was an unintended benefit of a refrigerator.
unintended benifits
Assistive bioengineering
engineering that results in a product or process that helps living organisms but does not change them permanently.
Example: crutches.
Assistive bioengineering
Adaptive bioengineering
engineering that results in a product or process that changes living organisms.
Example: biotic arm.
adaptive bioengineering
Cells
the smallest living things on the levels of organization of living things.
Tissues
a group of similar cells that perform a common function.
Example: your nose
muscles
Organ
a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body.
Example: your heart
a organ
Organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform body functions.
Example: The cardiovascular system
a organ system
Organism
a living thing; anything that can carry out life processes independently.
Example: A human
an organism
Prokaryotic cell
a single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles; examples are Achaea and bacteria.
Eukaryotic cell
an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane; eukaryotes include protists, animals, plants, and fungi but not Achaea or bacteria.
Longer life
a benifit of being multicellular
Specialization
a benifit of being multicellular
Bigger size
a benifit of being multicellular
Nucleus
In a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.
Nucleolus
Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes.
Ribosomes
Cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis.
Lysosomes
The organelle that digests food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign invaders.
Chloroplasts
The organelle that uses the energy of sunlight to make food.
Mitochondria
The organelle that breaks down food molecules to make ATP (energy).
Endoplasmic Reticulum
The organelle that makes lipids, breaks down drugs and other substances, and packages proteins for Golgi complex.
Golgi complex
The organelle that processes and transports proteins and other materials out of the cell.
Chromosomes
One of the structures in the nucleus that is made up of DNA and protein.
Cell Membrane
Controls what comes into and out of the cell; found in plant and animals cells.
Cell Wall
The rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell.
Cytoskeleton
A web of proteins in the cytoplasm that acts as both muscle and a skeleton and keeps the membrane from collapsing and helps some cells move.
Cytoplasm
The gel-like fluid where the organelles are found and it is inside the membrane.
Vesicles
Small sacs that surrounds materials to be moved into or out of a cell.
Large Central Vacuole
The organelle that stores water, wastes, food, and other materials. It is only found in plant cells.
Interphase
the cell prepare for mitosis and copy's all its organelles, chromosomes, and grows.
Growth Phase One
the cell grows and does its job.
Synopsis
chromosomes are copied.
Growth Phase Two
the cell's organelles are replicated.
Mitosis
a process of cell division that produces two identical nuclei.
Prophase
Mitosis begins and chromosomes condense from long strands into rod like structures.
Metaphase
The nuclear membrane is dissolved and paired chromatids align at the cell's equator.
Anaphase
The chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell.
Telophase
A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes unwind and mitosis is complete.
Cytokinesis
In cells that lack a cell wall, the cell pinches in two. In cells that have a cell wall, a cell plate forms between the two new cells. Then the cells separate.
Chromosomes
in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA.
Chromatin
chromosomes in their thread like state.
Chromatid
chromosomes in their rod like state.
Diffusion
movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Osmosis
the diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal.
Endocytosis
the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.
Exocytosis
the process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane.
Passive Transport
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell.
Active Transport
the movement of substances across the cell membrane that requires the cell to use energy.
Equilibrium
point at which the number of diffusing molecules moving in one direction is equal to the number moving in the opposite direction.
Selectively Permeable Membrane
a membrane that allows only certain molecules to pass through it by diffusion.
Photosynthesis
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food. The products of photosynthesis are oxygen and glucose. The reactants of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight.
Cellular Respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food. The products of cellular respiration are carbon dioxide and energy. The reactants of cellular respiration are oxygen and glucose.
Chloroplast
where photosynthesis takes place.
Chlorophyll
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food.
Mitochondria
the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration. It is called the powerhouse of a cell.
The Carbon Cycle
The continuous process by which carbon is exchanged between organisms and the environment.
Combustion
The process of the carbon in oil, coal, and natural gas returning to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide when burned.
Decomposition
the breaking down of dead materials into carbon dioxide and water.
Photosynthesis
The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food.
Respiration
the process by which you inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.
Fossil Fuels
fuels that are formed from the remains of prehistoric plant and animal life.