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3. Form a hypothesis
make if then statement using inferences from the observations made that gives a possible explanation (answer) to the question.
4. Test the hypothesis
design experiments that will clearly show whether a particular factor caused an observed outcome.
6. Draw conclusions
decide whether your hypothesis was correct or not and explain why or why not. If your hypothesis is wrong try to come up with another possible solution and repeat steps 2-7.
7. Communicate Results
let other scientist know of your results. A wrong hypothesis is just as useful as a right hypothesis because either way it allows scientist to learn. If it doesn't work it is useful if everyone knows that because people won't have to repeat the experiments and they then can work together to find the answer. Also by telling people what you did, they can repeat the experiments and see if they get the same results.
benefit analysis - the process of determining whether the cost of doing something is worth the benefit provided.
An intended benefit is the positive purpose for which a technology is designed to be used.
Unintended consequences are uses or results that engineers do not purposely include in the design of products.
Example: the ability for people to have food not native to the area was an unintended benefit of a refrigerator.
engineering that results in a product or process that helps living organisms but does not change them permanently.
engineering that results in a product or process that changes living organisms.
a single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles; examples are Achaea and bacteria.
an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane; eukaryotes include protists, animals, plants, and fungi but not Achaea or bacteria.
In a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.
The organelle that makes lipids, breaks down drugs and other substances, and packages proteins for Golgi complex.
The organelle that processes and transports proteins and other materials out of the cell.
A web of proteins in the cytoplasm that acts as both muscle and a skeleton and keeps the membrane from collapsing and helps some cells move.
Large Central Vacuole
The organelle that stores water, wastes, food, and other materials. It is only found in plant cells.
A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes unwind and mitosis is complete.
In cells that lack a cell wall, the cell pinches in two. In cells that have a cell wall, a cell plate forms between the two new cells. Then the cells separate.
in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA.
movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
the diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal.
the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.
the process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane.
the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell.
the movement of substances across the cell membrane that requires the cell to use energy.
point at which the number of diffusing molecules moving in one direction is equal to the number moving in the opposite direction.
Selectively Permeable Membrane
a membrane that allows only certain molecules to pass through it by diffusion.
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food. The products of photosynthesis are oxygen and glucose. The reactants of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight.
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food. The products of cellular respiration are carbon dioxide and energy. The reactants of cellular respiration are oxygen and glucose.
the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration. It is called the powerhouse of a cell.
The Carbon Cycle
The continuous process by which carbon is exchanged between organisms and the environment.
The process of the carbon in oil, coal, and natural gas returning to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide when burned.
The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food.
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