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50 terms

Chapter 4: Consciousness

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consciousness
a person's awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment
waking consciousness
state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear, organized, and the person feels alert
altered states of consciousness
state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciouness
circadian rhythm
a cycle of bodily rhythm that occurs over a 24-hour period
pathways to altered states of consciousness
drugs, daydreaming, hypnosis, meditation
sleep walking
occuring during sleep, an episode of moving around or walking around in one's sleep
amount of sleep needed
7-8 hrs
hypnosis
state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion
psychoactive drugs
drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory
microsleeps
brief sidesteps into sleep only lasting a few seconds
sleep deprivation
any significant loss of sleep, resulting in problems in concentration and irritability
adaptive theory
theory of sleep proposing that animals and humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid preditors by sleeping when predidtors are most active
restorative theory
theory of sleep proposing that sleep is necessary to the physical health of the body and serves to replenish chemicals and repair cellular damage
rapid eye movement (REM)
stage of sleep in which eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream
non- REM (NREM)
any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM
insomnia
the inability to get sleep, stay asleep, or get a good quality of sleep
alpha waves
brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep
theta waves
brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep
delta waves
long slow waves that indicate the deepest state of sleep
sleep apnea
disorder in which the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more
nicotine
the active ingredient in tobacco
psychogenic drugs
drugs including hallucinogens and marajuana that produce hallucinations or increased feeling of relaxation and intoxication
amphetamines
stimulants that are synthsized (made) in labs rather than being found in nature
cocaine
a natural drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant
caffeine
a mild stimulant found in coffee, tea, and several other plant based substances
psychological dependence
the feeling that a drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well- being
depressants
drugs that decrease the functioning of the nervous system
narcotics
a class of opium- related drugs that supress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system's natural receptor sites for endorphins
stimulants
drugs that increase the functioning of the nervous system
withdrawal
physical symptoms that can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure, resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems
narcolepsy
sleep disorder in which a person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning
night terrors
relatively rare disorder in which the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep without waking fully
nightmares
bad dreams occuring during REM sleep
REM behavior disorder
a rare disorder in which the mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails, allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares
marijuana
mild halluncinogen derived from the leaves and flowers of a particular type of hemp plant
psilocybin
natural hallucinogen found in certain mushrooms
MDMA (Ecstasy)
designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects
PCP
sythesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, hallucinogenic effects
LSD
powerful sythetic hallucinogen
hallucinogens
drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality
methadone
opium derivative without euphoric "high". Used to control heroin dependecy
heroin
narcotic drug derived from opium that is extrememly addictive
morphine
narcotic drug derived from opium, used to treat severe pain
opium
substance derived from the opium poppy from which all narcotic drugs are derived
Endorphin receptor site
where narcotics bind to and stimulate. Deadens pain sensations
signs of alcoholism
guilt from drinking, drinking in the morning, drinking to recover from drinking, drinking alone, sensetivity when others mention amount of drinking, regret saying or doing something while drinking, blackouts, memory loss, drinking too fast, lying about drinking, passing out
barbituates
depressant drugs that have a sedative effect
benzodiazepines
drugs that lower anxiety and reduce stress.
alcohol
the chemical resulting from fermentation or distillation of variouskinds of vegetable matter
Mescaline
natural hallucinogens derived from the peyote cactus buttons