AP Psychology Midterm Study Guide

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to obtain a reward, a monkey learns to press a lever when a 1000-Hz tone is on but not when a 1200-Hz tone is on. What kind of training is this?
Discrimination
The highest and most consistent rate of response is produced by a __________ schedule
Variable-ratio
A response that leads to the removal of an unpleasant stimuli is one being
negatively reinforced
When a conditioned stimulus is presented without an accompanying unconditioned stimulus, ___________ will soon take place
extinction
One difference between classical and operant conditioning is
in classical conditioning the responses are automatically triggered by stimuli
In Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate
taste with sickness
In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the meat served as
unconditioned stimulus
Punishment is a controversial way of controlling behavior because
of all the reasons
Which of the following is a type of associative learning
Classical conditioning
During extinction, the _____ is omitted; as a result, the _____ seems to disappear
US; CR
In Watson and Rayner's experiment, the loud noise was the ______ and the white rat was the ______
US; CS
In Pavlov studies of classical conditioning of a dog's salivary responses, a spontaneous recovery occurred
When the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest
For operant conditioning to be most effective, when should the reinforcers be presented in relation to the desired response?
Immediately after
In distinguishing between negative reinforcers and punishment, we note that
In contrast to punishment, negative reinforcement increases the like hood of a response by the termination of an adversive stimulus
Putting on your coat when it's cold outside it's a behavior that is maintained by
Negative reinforcement
Leon's psychology instructor has scheduled an exam every third week of the term. Leon will probably study the most just before an exam and the least just after an exam. This is because the schedule of exams is reinforcing studying according to which schedule?
Fixed interval
Operant conditioning is to ______ as classical conditioning is to ________
Skinner; Pavlov
A cognitive map is a
Mental representation of ones environment
After exploring a complicated maze for several days, a rat subsequently ran the maze with very few errors when food was placed in the goal box for the first time. This performance illustrates
Latent learning
Shaping is an ____ technique for _______ a beahvior
Operant; establishing
A group of ranchers attempts to discourage coyotes from attacking their
sheep by placing a substance on the wool of the sheep that makes coyotes
violently ill if they eat it. Very quickly, the coyotes avoid the sheep
entirely. In this scenario, what are the UCS, CS, and CR, respectively?
Th e substance, the sheep's wool, aversion to the sheep
Th e same ranchers discover that now not only will the coyotes not attack
the treated sheep but also they will not attack nearby sheep. Th is is an
example of
Generalization
In operant conditioning, the Premack Principle states that:
Acquiring a desired behavior from an individual can be eff ectively
used as a reinforcer for another, less desirable activity.
Mrs. Jackson, an English teacher, gives pop quizzes to her students every
marking period. Th is is an example of:
Variable interval schedule of reinforcement
In what manner would Ivan Pavlov have conducted extinction trials on his
classically conditioned dogs?
Repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus (bell) without pairing
it with the unconditioned stimulus (food)
In John Watson's "Little Albert" experiment, what was the UCS?
The loud noise
Which of the following is true of classical conditioning?
UCS produces UCR
Dylan's mother buys him a sailor's cap before they go on a family fi shing
trip. On the boat, Dylan gets nauseated and vomits. Th e next day he gets
nauseated just from looking at the sailor's cap. Th e sailor's cap has become:
Th e conditioned stimulus
Before Dylan became nauseated, he was able to go fi shing with his family,
even catching several fi sh. Fishing is an example of what schedule of
reinforcement?
Variable ratio
Sean sells shoes for a living. His salary depends on how many shoes he can
sell in a two-week period of time. What schedule of reinforcement is Sean
being paid with?
Fixed ratio
A passenger on an airplane was feeling very anxious about an important
job interview the next morning, and as a result he was uneasy and nervous
the entire fl ight. Back home a week later, he is contemplating a holiday
trip. Th ough he hadn't previously been afraid to fl y, he fi nds himself
suddenly nervous about fl ying and decides to cancel his plans to visit an
out-of-state relative. What are the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR, respectively?
Job interview, feeling nervous and anxious, fl ying, feeling nervous and
anxious about fl ying
As part of a new and intriguing line of research in behavioral medicine,
researchers gave mice saccharine-fl avored water and followed it up with
an injection of a drug that weakens mice's immune systems. Later, when
these mice drank saccharine-fl avored water, they showed signs of weakened
immune response. Research is currently under way to see if the reverse is
possible (if conditioning can be used to increase immune functioning), a
discovery that would surely have important implications for new medical
treatments. In this experiment, what is the saccharine-fl avored water?
Conditioned stimulus
Automobile advertisements, especially those for sports cars, often feature
young, beautiful women. Smart advertisers know and research confi rms
that men rate new cars whose ads include an attractive female as faster,
more appealing, better designed, and more desirable than cars with similar
ads that do not include an attractive female. What is the unconditioned
response?
Desire to buy the car
In the preceding scenario, in terms of classical conditioning, what is the
attractive woman?
Th e unconditioned stimulus
Which of the following statements best defines classical conditioning?
A type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by a stimulus
comes to be elicited by a formerly neutral stimulus
During the conditioning process of Pavlov's dogs, what element of classical
conditioning did the bell and food play?
CS and UCS
Desensitization therapy can best be defi ned as:
A conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about
a particular object or situation
Classical conditioning would best be suited to answer which of the
following questions?
Why do people associate certain foods with nausea?
Of the following, which would a psychologist consider the best example of
learning?
A child being able to ride a bike
The sight of a needle can trigger fear in some people. Why is this an
example of classical conditioning?
Th ere is an unconditioned association with fear and the needle.
What is one major diff erence between operant conditioning and classical
conditioning?
Operant conditioning takes place as a result of some voluntary action,
while classical conditioning takes place without choice.
Suspending a basketball player for committing a fl agrant foul is an
example of:
Punishment
A defendant is harassed and tortured until he confesses. Th is is an
example of:
Negative reinforcement
Punishment can best be defined as:
An attempt to weaken a response by following it with something
unpleasant
Which of the following statements best explains E. L. Thorndike's law of
effect?
Behaviors are strengthened by positive consequences and weakened
by negative ones.
B. F. Skinner used his "Skinner Box" to work on a procedure in which the
experimenter successfully reinforced behaviors, which led up to the desired
behavior. Th is procedure is known as:
Shaping
Schedules of reinforcement have a direct eff ect on maintaining your
behavior. Which of the following schedules of reinforcement is identifi ed
in this example: Calling a friend and getting a busy signal because he or
she is frequently on the phone?
Variable interval
Which of the following is the best example of a negative reinforcement?
A mother taking an aspirin to eliminate her headache
Which of the following best describes the basic principle behind operant
conditioning?
Th e consequences one receives are directly based on his or her
behavior.
What is the goal of both positive and negative reinforcement?
To increase the likelihood that the preceding behavior will be
repeated
Latent learning can best be described as:
Learning that is not immediately refl ected in a behavior change
Thorndike's law of eff ect neglects the inner drives or motives that make
learners pursue the "satisfying state," allowing learners to reach their
goals. Which of the following psychologists would have agreed with that statement?
Tolman
Which of the following scenarios is the best example of a cognitive map?
When asked for directions to his job, a man recites them in great
detail.
Wolfgang Kohler conducted a series of experiments in which he placed a
chimpanzee in a cage with a banana on the ground just out of his reach
outside of the cage. After a period of inaction, the chimp suddenly grabbed
the stick in the cage, poked it through the cage, and dragged the banana
within reach. Th is type of learning is called:
Insight
Harry Harlows's goal was to get his monkeys to fi gure out that in any set
of six trials, the food was always under the same box. Initially the monkeys
chose the boxes randomly, sometimes fi nding food and sometimes not.
However, after a while their behavior changed: after two consistent
trials of fi nding the correct box, they continually went back to the same
box. Harlow concluded that the monkeys had "learned how to learn."
According to Harlow the monkeys established:
Learning sets
Which of the following statements best exemplifi es the idea behind social
cognitive learning?
Learning is likely to happen whether we see someone else punished or
rewarded for behavior.
In Albert Bandura's "bobo" doll experiment, which group of children
spontaneously acted aggressively toward the doll rather quickly?
Model-reward condition
Devyn watches a violent television show and then pretends to shoot her
brother Tyler with a toy pistol. A psychologist would say that Devyn has
learned this behavior through:
Vicarious learning
Which of the following psychologists would argue that learning can
take place when someone is watching another person and performs that
behavior even when not reinforced?
Albert Bandura
Which of the following responses is not learned through operant
conditioning?
A baby takes his fi rst steps
Joey is refusing to complete his homework on time. After learning about
Joey's love of trains, Mrs. Anderson promises to reward Joey with a
Th omas and Friends video upon completion of his next two homework
assignments. Th is is an example of:
Th e Premack Principle
While taking his math placement exam, Spencer became stuck on one
problem. With only fi ve minutes left, he suddenly arrived at the answer.
Th is is an example of
Insight
After several attempts at escape with no success, the electrically shocked
dogs give up. At that moment the gates open and the dogs could simply
walk out, but they don't; instead they just sit there. Th is could most likely
be explained by the concept of:
Learned helplessness
After overcoming her fear of the dentist, Jada fi nds out she needs a root
canal. On her way to the dentist's offi ce, her old fears and anxieties return
and she begins to panic. Th is is an example of:
Spontaneous recovery
Salina receives a one-thousand-dollar bonus at her job after she sold the
most cars this month. Th e one-thousand-dollar bonus is an example of a:
Primary reinforcer