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Biology Chapter 17 terms
Terms in this set (33)
_____: all the genes, including all the different alleles for each gene, that are present in a population at any one time
_____: number of times that an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of alleles in that pool for the same gene
_____: trait controlled by one gene that has two alleles
_____: trait controlled by two or more genes
_____: form of natural selection in which individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve
_____: form of natural selection in which individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end of the curve
_____: natural selection in which individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle of the curve
_____: random change in allele frequency caused by a series of chance occurrences that cause an allele to become more or less common in a population
_____: a change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population
_____: change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
_____: situation in which allele frequencies in a population remain the same
_____: principle that states that allele frequencies in a population remain constant unless one or more factors cause those frequencies to change
_____: when individuals select mates based on heritable traits
_____: a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
_____: formation of a new species
_____: separation of a species or population so that they no longer interbreed and evolve into two separate species
_____: form of reproductive isolation in which two populations develop differences in courtship rituals or other behaviors that prevent them from breeding
_____: form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water, leading to the formation of two separate subspecies
_____: form of reproductive isolation in which two or more species reproduces at different times
_____: method used by researchers that uses mutation rates in DNA to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
frequency of alleles
Evolution, in genetic terms, involves a change in the _____ in a population over time.
Three sources of _____ are mutation, genetic recombination during sexual reproduction, and lateral gene transfer.
The number of _____ produced for a trait depends on how many genes control the trait.
Natural selection on single-gene traits can lead to changes in _____ and, thus, to changes in phenotype frequencies.
In small populations, individuals that carry a particular allele may leave more _____ than other individuals leave, just by chance.
Over time, a series of _____ can cause an allele to become more or less common in a population.
small population size
immigration or emigration
Hardy-Weinberg principle predicts that five conditions can disturb
genetic equilibrium and cause
evolution to occur:
When populations become _____, they can evolve into two separate species.
Reproductive isolation can develop in a variety of ways, including _____, _____, and _____.
_____ in Galápagos finches occurred by founding of a new population, geographic isolation, changes in the new population's gene pool, behavioral isolation, and ecological competition.
A _____ uses mutation rates in DNA to estimate the time that two species have been evolving independently.
duplication, and then modification
One way in which new genes evolve is through the _____ of existing genes.
Small changes in Hox gene activity during _____ can produce large changes in adult animals.
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