28 terms

OGT Physical Science

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acceleration
The rate of change a with respect to time.
acid
A substance that dissolves in water with the formation of hydrogen ions and reacts with a base to form a salt and water. It neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some metals, and turns litmus red; typically, a corrosive and sour-tasting liquid.
base
A substance that dissolves in water with the formation of hydroxyl ions and reacts with an acid to form a salt and water; turns litmus paper blue.
circuit
The complete path of an electric current usually including the source of electric energy.
conduction
Process by which heat or electricity is transmitted through a material or body without movement of the medium itself.
decay rate
The rate at which a radioactive isotope disintegrates until a final non-radioactive isotope is formed.
electric field
A region associated with a distribution of electric charge or a varying magnetic field, in which forces due to that charge or field, act upon other electric charges.
electromagnetic radiation
A kind of radiation including visible light, radio waves, gamma rays and x-rays in which electric and magnetic fields vary simultaneously.
electromagnetic spectrum
The entire range of wavelengths or frequencies of electromagnetic radiation extending from gamma rays to the longest radio waves and including visible light.
entropy
A thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal energy for conversion into mechanical work, often interpreted as the degree of disorder or randomness in the system.
exothermic
Characterized by or formed with liberation of heat.
fission
The splitting of an atomic nucleus resulting in the release of large amounts of energy.
fusion
The union of atomic nuclei to form heavier nuclei resulting in the release of enormous quantities of energy.
gravity
The gravitational attraction of the mass of the Earth, the moon or a planet for bodies at or near its surface.
infrared radiation
Invisible rays just beyond the red end of the visible spectrum. Their waves are longer than those of the spectrum colors but shorter than radio waves, and have a penetrating heating effect; used in cooking and photography.
ion
An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons.
isotope
Any of two or more species of atoms of a chemical element with the same atomic number and nearly identical chemical behavior, but with differing atomic mass or mass number and different physical properties.
kinetic energy
Energy associated with motion.
oxidation
Combination of a substance with oxygen.
pH scale
A numerical measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a chemical solution.
potential energy
The energy that matter has because of its position or because of the arrangement of atoms or parts.
reflection
The throwing back by a body or surface of light, heat or sound without absorbing it.
refraction
Deflection from a straight path undergone by a light ray or energy wave in passing obliquely from one medium (such as air) into another (such as glass) in which its velocity is different.
solubility
The amount of a substance that will dissolve in a given amount of another substance.
sound waves
Mechanical radiant energy that is transmitted by longitudinal pressure waves in a material medium (such as air) and is the objective cause of hearing.
velocity
The rate of change of position and direction with respect to time.
wave
A disturbance or variation that transfers energy progressively from point to point in a medium, and that may take the form of an elastic deformation or of a variation of pressure, electric or magnetic intensity, electric potential, or temperature.
wavelength
The distance between successive crests of a wave.