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Legal Psychology

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During interrogation of a suspect, openly physical brutality was _____ prior to 1930
The Daubert trilogy of cases impacts trial courts by
putting the burden of decisions about allowing expert testimony on trial judges
Brandeis's brief in Muller v Oregon (1908) was a milestone in the development of the psychology and law union because it
opened the door for U.S. courts to use social scientific evidence
The "three-strikes" laws are a reflection of which model of the criminal justice system?
Crime Control Model
The Reid technique is _____ used by police when questioning suspects. Establishing a sense of loss of control as part of this technique makes suspects feel _____.
often; vulnerable
The basis of the adversarial system in law is that
truth will emerge as a result of contest between opposing sides
Which of the following states are part of the Second Court of Appeals?
Connecticut and New York
All of the following is true about the use of torture in interrogations, EXCEPT
there is clear research evidence that torture leads to extracting useful information
The knowledge and skills of social psychologists might be relevant for the legal system in which one of these cases?
When studying the dynamics of jury deliberation
Russano, Meissner, Narchet, and Kassin (2005) reported higher rates of ________confessions compared to _____ confessions
true; false
False confessions may occur as a result of
All of these may lead to false confessions
The _____ shows a video image of the brain in action
fMRI
The technique that uses systematic analysis of written statements to assess the credibility of statements related to a particular event is called
criteria-based content analysis (CBCA
Research has demonstrated that sexism or gender bias is more likely to influence decision making in custody cases when the guidelines for custody are
vague
After an intense interrogation process, Matthew became convinced that he robbed the store. This form of false confession is called an
authentic-coerced confession
Please select the names of current Supreme Court Justices
Anthony Kennedy and John Roberts
Training people to detect lies _____ their ability _____ their confidence in their ability to discern lies
does not improve; but raises
Shane was involved in a highly charged court case. His job was to provide an overview of research to assist the jury in making a well-informed decision regarding the suspect, in particular, in regard to the suspect's confession. Shane was called in to serve in what capacity?
Expert witness
Michelle is in custody and being interrogated. One of the police officers is being nice and tries to empathize with her while the other one glares at her and accuses her of committing the crime because of her greed. The behavior of the police officers is an example of
playing "good cop-bad cop."
One problem with the BICS is that it can
escalate conflicts between parents
Marissa is being polygraphed using the guilty knowledge test (GKT). This test focuses on whether Marissa
knows facts that one would expect that only the criminal would know
Sylvester is hired by the defense to help select jurors who would be less likely to convict. This is an example of the following role played by psychologists in the legal system
advisor
Hugo is interrogated alone and told repeatedly that his guilt is corroborated by both physical evidence and eyewitness accounts. This approach most likely embodies the following strategy used by police during Hugo's interrogation
social isolation and certainty of guilt
Research in the field of social psychology has discovered that people tend to _____ the impact of situational forces, and this process is responsible for believing that suspects in police custody would _____ to the crime they did not commit
disregard; not confess
Miranda rights are intended to notify the suspect of the following rights EXCEPT for the right to
remain in custody
Unlike other polygraph tests, the guilty knowledge test (GKT)
reduces polygraph examiners to mere technicians
Child custody issues may require the expertise of a psychologist to assist the court in deciding the fate of a child in the case of a divorce. _____ refers to how much time a child spends with each of the parents
Physical custody
According to research studies described in the text, mock jurors who reported that they disregarded the confession as clearly coerced were _____ likely to convict the defendant
still more
There are several problems with polygraph techniques that use the standard procedures like CQT. Which of the following is NOT one of these problems?
Polygraph techniques work especially well if a person believes the polygraph is nearly infallible
Techniques such as biting the tongue, pressing the toes to the floor, or counting backwards are all examples of
countermeasures to polygraph testing
Please name five of the nine steps in the interrogation phase of the Reid technique
1. confrontation
2. theme development
3. stopping denials
4. overcoming objections
5. getting suspect's attention
All of the following are possible explanations for waiving the Miranda rights, EXCEPT
police are very careful in explaining to suspects their rights
GKT is one of the most promising polygraph techniques to date. However, there are some limitations to its usefulness. These limitations include that
many crimes are widely publicized in the media, a sufficient number of crime facts uniquely known by only the criminal is often not available
Studies evaluating the effectiveness of the D.A.R.E. program found that
the program is not effective in reducing drug use
A robbery suspect is apprehended and being read his Miranda rights by the police woman arresting him. The suspect is most likely to _____ his Miranda rights
waive
The American Psychology Law Society was established in the 1850s
False
According to your text, the conduit-educator role for an expert witness
focuses on presentation of a particular field of knowledge
The ultimate goal of interrogating a suspect is to
elicit a confession
The knowledge and skills of clinical psychologists might be relevant for the legal system in which one of these cases?
When assessing a mentally ill defendant for potential risk of violence
Susan is studying developmental psychology, but is also interested in law. What might she be called upon to testify about if called into court?
the impact of long-term exposure to violence on television on children
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
The vast majority of people never tell lies
A major difference between an advocate and an expert witness is
the advocate strongly identifies with only one side
In the United Kingdom, Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) was enacted to make it illegal to trick suspects or to lie for the purpose of coercing suspects to confess. Studies show that _____, suspects are _____ likely to admit guilt
despite the decline of pressure tactics and trickery; just as
Differences in goals, methods, and styles of inquiry made the relationship between psychology and law
difficult but important
The tendency to attribute others' behavior to dispositional causes such as personality is referred to as
fundamental attribution error
In the case of divorce under English common law, children were considered to be
property of the father
Kathryn's parents recently divorced. During the hearing for custody, it was determined that her mother would have legal and physical custody. This type of custody is known as
sole custody
Ricardo is conducting research on the effects of solitary confinement on mental health. This is an example of the following role played by a psychologist in the legal system
evaluator
Jared was questioning a suspect using the Reid technique, and after a long and exhausting interrogation, the suspect falsely confessed to the crime just to put an end to the interrogation. When hearing this confession, Jared felt even more confident that the suspect was guilty. This is an illustration of the phenomenon that psychologists call
confirmation bias
Elena was suspected of committing a fraud. Investigators asked her to tell her story in reverse. This promising lie-detection technique is based on the idea that narrating backwards
increases cognitive load
Lying is considered to be an adaptive behavior from a(n) _____ point of view
evolutionary
The comparison question test (CQT) posits that guilty individuals react more strongly to _____ questions, whereas innocent individuals react more strongly to _____ questions
relevant; comparison
In recent decades, the instances of joint legal custody have been
increasing
The _____ approach treats laws as a tool that needs to be regularly reexamined and adjusted, whereas _____ treats laws as evolved to reflect the principles found in nature
legal realism; "natural law"
Isabella is advocating for a change in the way domestic violence victims are treated by police and the courts. This is an example of the following role played by psychologists in the legal system
reformer
Patihis, Ho, Tingen, Lilienfeld, and Loftus (2014) reported that research-oriented psychologists expressed _______skepticism about the validity of repressed memory when compared to counterparts
more
According to the text, the "_____ hypothesis" posits that human intelligence was accelerated by the need for humans to develop social skills related to manipulation, pretense, and deception
Machiavellian intelligence
Consider the following interrogation scenario: Tom Jones is being interrogated for the murder of his girlfriend. The
police officer conducting the interrogation screams the following at Tom: "I am 100% sure that you committed this
crime. We found your fingerprints on the knife. This is first degree murder unless you confess and explain what
happened right now." In actuality, the police have no fingerprint evidence. How would you best characterize the
"scare tactic" interrogation techniques being used by the police officer?
maximization techniques
According to a study conducted by Honts, Raskin, and Kircher (1994), the use of countermeasures _____ the detection of guilty suspects by 50%, and the examiners _____ able to tell that the suspects were manipulating their own arousal patterns
reduced; were not
According to research completed by Bond and DePaulo (2006), people's ability to distinguish lies has a _____ rate of accuracy, and efforts to improve people's ability to discern lies have _____
barely above chance; not been very successful
In Kovera & MsAuliff (2000), untrained judges gave______admissibility ratings to the confounded study than the scientifically trained judges
higher
Research by Kassin and his colleagues has shown that even when _____ had no problem recognizing that a confession was coerced, they still voted _____ more often
jurors; guilty
For a reasonable evaluation of scientific validity of potential expert testimony, one needs to have sufficient understanding of
research methods
In the Kassin & Kiechel's Alt Key false confession study, what was the compliance rate in the high vulnerability/false evidence condition?
100%
In consideration of scientific testimony, gatekeeping in the legal sense includes
assessing the scientific validity of potential testimony
Jeremy purposely confessed to a crime he did not commit to cover for his wife. This type of confession is referred to as an
voluntary false confession
All of the following traits can be defined as vulnerability to making a false confession, EXCEPT
high aggression
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