AP World History - Era 4 Part 1
Terms in this set (82)
Early Modern Period
the time period of 1450 - 1750
(it is called this because events occurring in this time directly shape regional/political units of todays world)
the church's actions to revive their reputation and membership roles in 1545 (regained control of most of southern Europe, Austria, Poland, and much of Hungary)
a religious order converting people to return to the church (went to Asia + Americas in 1500's)
English Civil War
This was the revolution as a result of whether the sovereignty would remain with the king or with the Parliament. Eventually, the kingship was abolished and England became a commonwealth.
a new vision of science developed during the renaissance in the 17th + 18th century
Scholars based their inquiry on the principles established by the church, which sometimes resulted in clases between science and religion
Developed the laws of Planetary Motion - Planets move in Ellipses
used the first telescope during the Renaissance in 1609, where he made many large discoveries in the solar system, until he was put under house arrest for spreading conflicting ideas
discovered the basic principles of motion + gravity, where he captured the vision of a entire universe in simple laws
interest in the capabilities and accomplishments of individuals
supporters of the arts, with payment and such, they found talented artists, often when they were young
was a powerful family of Florence in the mid to late 1400s that sponsored artists as a rich merchant family
a humanist Dutch priest that published the first edition of the New Testament in Greek in 1516
a German goldsmith and printer, who created the printing press, in 1454
a Renaissance writer who wrote, "The Prince" which was a famous philosophical view of the ideal political leader in the 16th century, in Italian city states
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
The Catholic Church's grants of salvation for money in the 1500s, and was part of the growing corruption of the church.
A protestant who established a variation of his beliefs on a stern and vengeful God.
A form of Christianity established by Henry VIII that was not decided on the grounds of religious belief, but because the pope would not allow him to divorce his wife.
a Polish monk who based tables on those by Nasir Al-Din, an Islamic scholar, to correct inaccurate calendars.
a German monk who wrote the 95 theses in 1517, which were 95 propositions that criticized the Catholic Church
Title of a person who was smart and genius in the Renaissance Era.
God built the universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.
A heightened intellectual and artistic advance from about 1450s, that changed Europe forever
He analyzed the natural law of supply and demand that governed economies in his classic book, "The Wealth of Nations"
States where rulers shared power with a parliament, a body of representatives selected by the nobility and urban citizens
the most powerful members of a society, and landowners that affected the style of the old aristocracy
the emphasis on human abilities and accomplishments and the importance of independent and rational thought
sought to understand the impact of the "laws of nature" on human liberties
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
admired the British Parliament that had successfully gained power at the expense of the king, who also advocated a three-branch government with three branches that shared political power
wrote witty criticisms of the French monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church. He believed both institutions to be despotic and intolerant, limiting freedoms
the most radical of the common philosophers, he proclaimed in his social context that "Man is born free: and everywhere he is in chains". Since society had "Corrupted" human nature, he advocated a return to nature in a small, co-op community
A powerful family with land claims all over Europe from Spain to Italy to the Netherlands to Hungary, as all the Holy Roman Emperor's had been Hapsburg since 1273
Holy Roman Empire
a place/time where religion remained very important, and religious issues continued to fragment, and strong kings emerged in the 16th century
the retaking of land in Iberia by Spain and Portugal in a religious crusade to expand. This conquest advanced in waves over several centuries.
with God's blessing of the king's authority, the legitimacy of royalty across Europe was enhanced, and occurred under the reign of Louis XIV during the 17th and 18th centuries
Absolute monrach of France, displayed this by building a magnificent palace at Versailles.
the responsibility of government to promote the states economy to improve the revenues and limit imports to prevent profits from going to outsiders (allows industry to develop their own business)
these companies organized commercial ventures on a large scale by allowing investors to buy and sell shares. The new capitalist system largely replaced the old guild system of the middle ages.
a place where Louis' palace was built symbolizing the French's triumph over the traditional rights of the nobility and clergy. This kept nobles away from plotting rebellions, and 'distracted europe'.
Henry the Navigator
the third son of the portuguese king; devoted his life to navigation, creating a navigation school, which became a magnet for the cartographers of the world
a new ship developed by the portuguese, which was much smaller than the junk, but size allowed for exploration of shallower coastal areas
Vasco da Gama
set out to find the tip of Africa and connect it to the Indian Ocean, and discovered the fastest and safest ways to travel to Portugal
A Genoese mariner who convinced Isabella and Ferdinand to sponsor a voyage across the Atlantic after he was turned down by the Genoese and Portugal. He believed he could reach east Asia by sailing West.
Treaty of Tordesillas "Tortillas"
a treaty making Spain and Portugal land claim boundary. Portugal pushes its explorations to India and beyond.
had a ship that was first to circumnavigate the glove, even though Magellan himself died in the phillipines
went to search for gold and convert the natives to Christianity in the interior of Mexico
sought to find the Aztec capital, and took over the Aztec land - with help of Amerindians, disease, and technology
the Aztec emperor, who welcome the Spaniards at Tenochtitlan, seeing them as god-like. This was a mistake, as this allowed everyone to conquer him.
led a group of soldiers to the Andes to find the Inca. The Incas were weak; Pizzaro conquered and got gold.
the leader of the Incas, who was seized by Pizzaro and gave gold to him, first baptized as a Christian, than strangled
De La Casas
a conquistador priest who dedicated himself to protecting Amerindian rights
peoples who converted new world people to christianity, and took care of the poor.
Spanish settlers who were in charge of the natives working on the encomiendas
a fading social class in the new world, composed of the people born in the old world
composed of European and Amerindian children, part of the castas
composed of European and African children, also part of the castas
Council of Indies
supervised all government and commercial activity in the Spanish colonies
set out to find the tip of Africa and connect beyond it to the Indian Ocean, as well as discovering the fastest and safest ways back to Portugal
the system in which conquistadors had forced natives to do work for them
composed of those born in the new world; a quickly growing class
Dutch East India Company
a joint stock company that specialized in the spice and luxury trade of the East Indies and quickly gained control of Dutch Trading in the Pacific
a system in which the government is constantly intervened in the market, with the understanding the goal of economic gain and to benefit the mother country
a system which was usually ethnically the same as a free settler, but he or she was bound by an "indenture" (contract) to work for a person for four to seven years, in exchange for payment of the new world voyage
the global diffusion of crops, other plants, human beings, animals, and distance that took place after the European exploring voyages of the New World
the first leg of the atlantic circuit, where ships took slaves to the new world
settled first in New England, and wanted to break away completely from the Church of England, sought to pursue spiritual ends in new lands
wanted to purify Church of England, not break with it
Christian missionaries went to this kingdom just south of the Congo River, where Christian Missionaries converted its inhabitants to Christianity
Produced insignificant amounts of gold and Kola nuts, they rose in West Africa on the Gold Coast.
Not really a significant player in the slave trade - relied on traditional products, such as ivory, textiles, and their unique bronze castings
a kingdom that used firearms to create its powerbase, in Contrast to the Asante, the Dahomey leaders were authoritarian, and often brutal in forcing compliance to the royal court
one of the two beachland colonies established by the Europeans in the 16th century, functioned as a major coastal for travelers.
Ivan the Terrible (his nickname) reflected problems that tsars faced as power increased
declared himself as "tsar" (means Caesar) with the claim he was establishing the "Third Rome"
Peasants, who Ivan III consolidated land hold by recruiting them
The nobility of the Russia feudal based economic system. They also had military responsibilities to overlords, including the tsar
Time of Trouble
The time of following Ivan's rule. Ivan executed his oldest son, touching off competition among Boyars for the throne.
Peter the Great
The tsar of Russia in 1682 to 1724, who was most responsible for transforming Russia into a great world power. He understood how things worked globally, and expanded water ports
The "Window to the West" established by Peter the Great, which was a capital built on the shoes of the newly accessed Baltic Sea (a port for the new navy + allowed closer access to western countries)
a derivative of "Caesar", establishing a "3rd rome". This was a major propaganda for Russia
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