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Anatomy Semester 1 Test
Terms in this set (169)
The basic unit of life is the
Which is NOT one of the five survival needs?
The basic unit of matter is the
Which of the following is the correct description of how living things are put together?
Cells- Tissues- Organs- Organ System- Organism
The body must perform gas exchange in order to supply its cells with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. This function is dependent on
Normal atmospheric pressure
Which branch of biology is most concerned with how an organism functions?
Which branch of biology is most concerned with an organism's structures?
The ____________ plane divides the body into upper and lower halves.
Which is an example of positive feedback?
labor contractions while giving birth
The ___________ divides the body into right and left halves.
The _____________ plane divides the body into front and back sides.
The femoral region is _____ to the brachial region.
the eyes are ________ to the nose
your carpus is ______ to your digits
your naval is on the ______ side of the body
where is DNA stored in a cell?
in the nucleus
all living things are composed of cells.
which is NOT a structure common to all cells?
at the cellular level, structure does not determine function.
the plasma membrane is composed of two layers of
a cell with abundant peroxisomes would most likely be involved in
which organelle is responsible for the production of ATP within the cell?
the stack of flattened membranes found near the nucleus that helps modify and package large molecules and transport them throughout the cell or out of the cell is the
which epithelium is "built" to withstand friction?
which is NOT a type of passive transport?
the spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is
which specialized cell structure occurs in the digestive tract and is responsible for increasing surface area for absorption of water and nutrients?
which tissue would most likely become amitotic after puberty is complete?
which method of passive transport is used by your kidneys?
which type of connective tissue prevents muscles from pulling away from bones during muscle contractions?
simple squamous epithelial tissue would most likely be found
lining the air sacs of the lungs
which primary tissue type is specialized to send and receive electrochemical impulses?
which type of transport requires energy?
which is NOT a type of connective tissue?
any epithelium membrane that lines a cavity that is open to the outside of the body is called an
which is NOT a function of sweat?
lubricate skin and hair
mucous membranes always secrete a mucous.
which is an example of a mucous membrane?
the lining of the mouth and throat
which structure or region of the skin provides protection from ultraviolet radiation?
hair and nails are mostly nonliving.
which protein fills most of your skin cells and helps provide a waterproof barrier to the outside?
a condition in which the skin becomes yellow due to buildups of bile in the fatty tissues is called
which condition would NOT be a cause of erythema?
which skin condition develops as pink, water filled lesions that eventually produce yellow crust and are caused by a staphylococcus bacteria?
what type of sudoriferous gland secretes a milky, nutrient- rich sweat that bacteria enjoy feeding on?
inflammation of hair follicles and sebaceous glands that is common on dorsal neck is called
which epidermal layer lies closest to the dermis and is the site of new cell production?
what kind of cells alert and activate the immune system when bacteria or viruses are attempting to break into the skin?
epidermal dendritic cells
which epidermal layer is the outermost layer and accounts for 3/4 of the entire epidermis?
which pigment contributes to the yellow- orange tint of skin?
itchy, red, peeling condition between the toes, resulting from a fungus infection is called
what type of cell occurs at the junction between the epidermis and dermis and are associated with sensory nerve endings and serve as touch receptors?
which region of the dermis has uneven, peglike ridges that produce fingerprints?
which layer of skin has a rich blood supply?
a membrane that lines a body cavity that is closed to the outside
a broad term for all membranes composed of epithelium; can also contain connective tissue
secrete oil, or sebum, which helps keep the skin and hair lubricated
a membrane that lacks any epithelial tissue
connective tissue membrane
refers to the skin and its derivatives
the layer of a serous membrane that is in contact with the organ in a body cavity
a membrane that lines a joint cavity
are composed of two layers
secrete sweat, help regulate body temperature, and are found all over the body
is secreted to help provide lubrication for organs that move
the layer of a serous membrane that is in contact with the wall of a body cavity
most of the epidermis is __________________, or has no blood supply.
below the dermis lies the ______________ which is not actually part of the skin, but helps anchor skin to underlying organs and provides nutrient storage
which stratum layer is only found in areas of the body that contain "thick skin"?
the layer of dense connective tissue that lies below the epidermis is the ____________
a _______________ blister occurs when the dermis is separated from the epidermis by heat or friction and interstitial fluid builds up between the two layers
________________ means "active cell devouring" or more simply "cell eating"
the cell membrane is ___________________ meaning it lets certain things in easily while keeping others out.
___________ beat back and forth in order to move substances in one direction
which connective tissue type has a fluid matrix?
the creation of sex cells is called
a neoplasm that is not surrounded by a membrane and may spread to other tissues is called
Heel of foot
Posterior region of knee
Fingers and toes
A group of tissues that work together to perform a similar function called an _______
The ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions, even while outside conditions are constantly changing is called ______
Which is not a component of the skeletal system?
What is responsible for hematopoiesis?
Red bone marrow
Mature bone cells are called
Bone destroying cells are called
Bone forming cells are called
The first stage to repair a fracture is
The 7 vertebrae that make up your neck are called your _____ vertebrae
The strongest bone in the body is the
The thumb is ____ meaning it can touch the opposite side of the hand
Where do the muscles of the lower leg attach to?
Immovable joints are called
A joint that allows free movement in a single plane is called
Which is an example of a hinge joint?
The shaft of a long bone is called its
The _______ is composed of the skull, vertebral column, and ribs
The first cervical vertebra, the _____ supports the weight of the head
______ ribs have no connection with the sternum
The point where two bones articulate is called a _____
Moving an appendage away from the midline of the body
Rotating the hand or foot so that the palm or arch faces upward or forward
Increasing the angle between the two bones that make up a joint
Turning on an axis
Rotating the hand or foot so that the palm of arch faces downward or backward
Moving an appendage toward the midline of the body
Decreasing the angle between the two bones that make up a joint
Fracture that does not penetrate the skin
Fracture where bone shattera
Fracture goes through the entire bone
Fracture is parallel to the direction of the hone
Fracture penetrates the skin
Fracture does not break all the way through the bone
Fracture: any portion of the bone is twisted
Fracture is perpendicular to the direction of the bone
Fracture occurs diagonally to the direction of the hone
Fracture pushes the bone the bone into another hone
The contraction of a skeletal muscle turns _____ energy into ____ energy
The ability to receive and respond to stimuli is called
A skeletal muscle does NOT follow the all- or- none law of physiology. It can contract partially or produce a ______
What occurs when muscle is stimulated so rapidly that no evidence of relaxation is seen, contractions are completely smooth and sustained?
Complete/ fused tetanus
The strength of a muscle contraction mostly depends on
How many muscle cells are stimulated
Which method of ATP production is used most often in exercises that require short bursts of energy, such as short sprints and power lifting
Direct phosphorylation by creatine phosphate
Which method of ATP production is used when the body is at rest or during very light exercise?
Once oxygen is used up the body must switch to which method of ATP production?
Lactic acid fermentation
Which is NOT a type of aerobic exercise?
The point of muscle attachment that is attached to the immovable or less movable bone is called the
Specialized synergists that hold a bone still or stabilize the origin of a prime mover are called
The point of muscle attachment that is attached to the more movable bone is called the
The muscle with the major responsibility for particular movement is called the
Turning the sole of the foot towards the midline of the body or medially is called
What movement occurs when the proximal end of a bone is stationary while the limb moves in a circle?
The protein that the thin filaments are composed of
Long ribbonlike organelles that fill the cytoplasm of a muscle cell
The plasma membrane of a muscle cell
Smaller subdivisions of sarcomeres that are made up of contractile proteins
The protein that the thick filaments are composed of
Individual contractile unit of of muscle cell
Specializes smooth Endoplasmic reticulum that stores calcium
The essential function of muscle tissue is to
Troponine and tropomyosin must be bought off with _____ in order for a muscle cell to contract
ATP and calcium
The only energy source that can be used at the cellular level is
When muscle is unable to contract even though it is still being stimulated this iccurs
The biceps is the prime mover of the elbow flexion it's ____ is the triceps
_______ occurs when a muscle is extended further than 180 degrees
A muscle contraction that occurs when myosin successful binds with actin, the muscle shortens and movement occurs is called an
Isotonic contraction it's opposite is isometric- no movement occurs
Invisible muscle contractions are constantly occurring to keep muscles healthy what is this state called?
When nerve supply to a muscle is destroyed the muscle is no longer stimulated as it should be in the the question above. The muscle begins to ____ and become ____
Atrophy and flaccid
_____ exercise pits the muscle against an immovable or nearly immovable object
A _____ assists the prime mover by producing the same movement or reducing undesirable
When muscle cells are at rest, actin and myosin cannot bind.
A muscle cell can partially contract depending on how much it is being stimulated.
A skeletal muscle can only push never pull
All skeletal muscles have at least two points of attachment
When a muscle contracts, the origin moves towards the insertion
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