Freedom of the press, the right to assemble, the right to petition government, and the "freedom of association" come from the...
The right to be secure against government searches of homes and other personal items without permission or a search warrant comes from the...
The right to protection against right violation without due process of law comes from the...
5th and 6th Amendments
The rights of criminal defendants in investigations (for example, the right to a public jury trial) come from the...
The inherent rights of the States and the people (except for the specific rights given to the federal government) come from the...
The Equal Protection Clause,
and the Due Process Clause come from the...
The right of all people to vote, regardless of their ethnicity, their race, or (through interpretation) their literacy, comes from the...
The right of the people of each State to directly elect their U.S. Senators comes from the...
The restriction of the number of terms a president can serve to two terms comes from the...
Engel v. Vitale
In 1962, this Supreme Court decision inappropriately applied the Establishment Clause to prohibit classroom prayer. As a result, public schools do not allow classroom prayer.
Brown v. Board of Education
In 1954, this Supreme Court decision ended racial public school segregation.
Marbury v. Madison
In 1803, this highly influential decision gave the judiciary branch the power of "judicial review:" the power to invalidate laws passed by Congress and the president. Although President Thomas Jefferson was happy that he won the case, he was not pleased that the Court's decision gave it the power to invalidate laws made by the other branches of government.
Miranda v. Arizona
In 1966, this decision reached by the Supreme Court resulted in questioners being obligated to read the "Miranda warning" before questioning criminals.
Roe v. Wade
This decision is an example of "judicial activism." The U.S. Supreme Court combined the Due Process Clause and "incorporation doctrine" to illogically declare that abortion is a constitutional right and to invalidate State laws regarding abortion, issuing this decision in 1973. The March for Life has protested it annually since.
Written at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 and ratified by the States by 1788, it was supported by a series of articles called the Federalist Papers.
These papers were penned by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. Their purpose was to pursuade NY to ratify the Constitution.
separation of powers
This phrase refers to the separation of the U.S. federal government into the three legislative, judicial, and executive branches.
checks and balances
The three branches of the federal government "check" and "balance" the power of each other by preventing each other from growing too powerful.
This "doctrine" allows the judicial branch of the federal government to review and, if necessary, invalidate laws passed by Congress/the president.