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ASTB Aviation Information
Terms in this set (58)
What is the landing gear in the rear of the airplane called?
conventional landing gear
What is the landing gear under the nose of the plane called?
tricycle landing gear
2 types of fixed wing aircraft propulsion systems are?
propellers and jets
Describe fixed pitch propeller
can't be adjusted by the pilot and is attached to the motor
Discribe variable pitch propeller
more efficient than fixed can. be adjusted by the pilot for the most efficient operation
Tail assembly aka
Controls the nose of the airplane
attached to the tails verticle stabilizer. Moves the planes nose left and right during flight. Y axis
Purpose of trim tabs
reduce control pressures and decrease the pilot's workload.
Newtons First Law of Motion
inertia- an object at rest or in motion must stay at rest or in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.
Newtons Second Law of Motion
Force=Mass Acceleration F= ma Bigger the mass the more Force is needed to accelerate.
Newtons Third Law of Motion
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. (Jets pro-pulse heat out pushing the plane forward)
4 forces acted upon an aircraft during flight
gravity, lift, thrust, and drag. List pushes up, gravity pulls down, thrust pushes forward, drag pulls backward.
Hydrodynamics- Airfoil; The faster a fluid (air) travels, the less time it has to exert pressure over any given part of that surface.
What cause lift?
The difference of air pressure above and below the wing. Amount of camber of a wing creates more or less lift.
What is a stall caused by
the seperation of airflow from the wing's upper surface, resulting in a rapid decrease in lift.
Change angle of attack.
the force produced by mass of the airplane interacting with earth's gravitational field. Must be counteracted by lift to create flight.
Profile or parasitic drag
experienced by all objects in an airflow. Caused by an airplane pushing air out of the way as it moves forward.
axis that runs lengthwise from the nose to the tail of the airplane. Causes rolling
wing tip to wing tip. Causes pitching
the axis that runs from bottom of the airplane to the top. causes yawing. Turning left and right (twister game)
Sea level weight of air
14.7lbs per inch aka 1 ATP
Warmer air is less dense than cooler air producing
less lift. Cooler the air causes greater lift.
Primary system controls
ailerons, rudder, elevator/stabilator
Secondary system controls
Two types of flight control systems are
Primary and Secondary Controls
Joy stick controls
roll (movement around the longitudinal axis) and pitch (movement around the lateral axis)
Rudder pedals control
yaw; movement of nose left/right in a horizontal sense.
Moving the joystick to the right causes the right aileron to
deflect up and left to deflect downward. Upward deflection causes a decrease in camber pulling the wing tip down. Downward deflection does the opposite causing the wingtip to rise.
one surface of the horizontal stabilizer that causes lift. (most planes have two separate elevators)
Four secondary control devices are
Flaps, leading edge devices, spoilers, and trim systems.
Spoilers do what?
increase drag and decrease lift. Some spoilers are used for roll control. One advantage is the elimination of adverse yaw. Deploying both spoilers allows the aircraft to descend without gaining speed. By destroying lift during landings, they increase braking and transfer weight to the wheels.
Trim systems do what?
relieve the pilot from the need of constant pressure to the control systems.
gives the pilot altitude readings. Short hand is for 10000's intermediate is for 1000's and Long is for 100s.
Denser air produces more or less lift?
Oxygen is used in flights above 10000 feet in order to
prevent hypoxia. (insufficient oxygen to the blood stream)
Vertical Speed Indicator doe what?
Measures the climb/dive during flight. If a plane is steadily climbing at 500fps and the nose slightly lowers, the VSI senses the change immediately. This is called TREND. The the VSI takes to stabilize between the old rate of climb and the new rate of climb is called LAG.
Pitot pressure and Static pressure
Air speed indicator-Pitot (impact) pressure is measured while the plane is moving. Static pressure is the undisturbed ATP at level flight. The difference of these pressures are measured in MPH, Knots, or Both.
Four Air Speed Types (ICE-T)
Indicated airspeed- (Measured from pitot tube)
Calibrated airspeed- (airspeed calculated after accounting for aircraft mechanical and position errors)
Equivalent airspeed- (Airspeed calculated after compensating for compression affects. Usually above 200mph)
True Airspeed- (airspeed calculated after accounting for temperature and atmospheric pressure changes)
White arc on a ASI
used for approaches and landings. Lower limit measures full flap stall speed and upper limit measures max flap speed
Vso on an ASI
The stall speed or minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration.
Vfe on an ASI
Maximum speed with flaps extended
Green arc on an ASI
Normal operating speed
Vs1 on an ASI
Stall speed or minimum steady flight speed in a specified configuration. Power-off stall speed at maximum takeoff weight in a clean configuration (gear up if retractable and flaps up)
Vno on an ASI
Maximum structural cruising speed. Do not exceed unless smooth air.
Yellow arc on an ASI
Caution range; fly only in this range in smooth air and use caution
Red line (Vne) on an ASI
Never operate in this area. Prohibited.
Best RATE of climb
(Vy) best gain in altitude in least amount of time
Best ANGLE of climb
(Vx) performed at an airspeed that will produce more altitude over a given distance. Used to clear objects after takeoff.
Cyclic control i used to
control the direction of the tilt of the main rotor on a helicopter
Collective Control is used to
tilt the angle of the main rotor blades. If you push the collective tube forward, it will tilt the leading edge higher than the trailing edge affecting the lift and thrust forces. This control is located to the left of the pilot. This control also has a rotatable throttle wrapped around the tubing.
Tail rotor pedals at the pilots feet
control the pitch of the tail rotor blades. Also controls the yawing of the nose.
auto rotation happens when
the engine rails and the blades/rotors spin created from airflow. Slows the chopper down at manageable level.
Transitional lift is
the additional lift the helicopter gets when it flies out from its own downwash, which has a cushioning affect as long as the helicopter is low enough.
Gyroscopic precession, which applies to any spinning disc,
means that a force applied to a spinning disc has its affect happen 90 degrees later in the direction and plane of rotation.
This causes blades to lead and lag. A mass moving radially outward on a rotating disk exerts a force opposite to rotation (deceleration). A mass moving radially inward on a rotating disk exerts a force in the direction of rotation (acceleration). Ice Skater arms in example.
Transverse flow effect
happens at 10-20 knots and happens when there is a drag differential from the front half to the back half of the rotor blade. It actually is felt in a right rolling motion because of gyroscopic precession
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ASTB Mechanical Comprehension
ASTB Aviation and Nautical Terms
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