Code.org - AP Computer Science Principles - Unit 1-3
Terms in this set (56)
A preliminary sketch of an idea or model for something new. It's the original drawing from which something real might be built or created.
a question to which there are only two possible answers.
a message that can only be one of two possible values.
A contraction of "Binary Digit". A bit is the single unit of information in a computer, typically represented as a 0 or 1.
(sometimes written bitrate) the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. e.g. 8 bits/sec.
A set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between devices.
Transmission capacity measure by bit rate
Time it takes for a bit to travel from its sender to its receiver.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII is the universally recognized raw text format that any computer can understand.
(v) to write code, or to write instructions for a computer.
(Request for Comments) documents how standards and protocols are defined and published for all to see on the IETF website.
A number assigned to any item that is connected to the Internet.
Small chunks of information that have been carefully formed from larger chunks of information.
A computer which receives messages travelling across a network and redirects them towards their intended destinations based on the addressing information included with the message.
(Domain Name System) the Internet's system for converting alphabetic names into numeric IP addresses.
(Transmission Control Protocol) provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of packets on the internet. TCP is tightly linked with IP and usually seen as TCP/IP in writing.
(Internet Protocol) assigns IP addresses to computers and routes packets of data to the correct address.
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is the protocol used by the World Wide Web. It describes how messages are formatted and interchanged, and how web servers respond to commands.
Reducing information and detail to focus on essential characteristics (also in unit 2)
A computer that awaits and responds to requests for data
A computer that requests data stored on a server.
(Hypertext Makeup Language) the language, or coding, used to makeup a website.
(Uniform Resource Locator) a reference to a resource on the Internet.
a problem solving approach (algorithm) to find a satisfactory solution where finding an optimal or exact solution is impractical or impossible.
a data compression algorithm that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.
A type of data used for graphics or pictures.
Data that describes other data. For example, a digital image may include metadata that describe the size of the image, number of colors, or resolution-
Short for -picture element- it is the fundamental unit of a digital image, typically a tiny square or dot which contains a single point of color of a larger image-
Hexadecimal Number System
A number system consisting of 16 distinct symbols — 0-9 and A-F — which can occur in each place value.
A compression scheme in which every bit of the original data can be recovered from the compressed file.
A compression scheme in which "useless" or less-than-totally-necessary information is thrown out in order to reduce the size of the data. The eliminated data is unrecoverable.
Removing unnecessary details to focus on the essential characteristics. To break problems up into separate parts which can then be solved separately and recombined to form a complete solution. To focus on and use something based only on what it does and without concern for how that functionality is accomplished
A proposed explanation for some phenomenon used as the basis for further investigation.
A document providing background information about a dataset.
Abbreviation of "comma-separated values," this is a widely-used format for storing data.
The original data as it was collected.
A table of aggregate information about a dataset (e.g., the average, sum, count of some values).
A table that summarizes information about some larger dataset. It typically consists of performing computations like sums, averages, and counts on higher level groupings of information. The intent is to summarize lots of data into a form that is more useful, and easier to "see".
The tool used by most spreadsheet programs to create a summary table.
-A computation in which rows from a data set are grouped together and used to compute a single value of more significant meaning or measurement. Common aggregations include- Average, Count, Sum, Max, Median, etc-
A precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer and are implemented using programming languages. (NOTE: this is the definition from the AP CS Principles framework).
Low level programming language
A programming language that captures only the most primitive operations available to a machine. Anything that a computer can do can be represented with combinations of low level commands.
High level programming language
A programming language with many commands and features designed to make common tasks easier to program. Any high level functionality is encapsulated as combinations of low level commands.
the application of each step of an algorithm in the order in which the statements are given.
uses a Boolean condition (a TRUE/FALSE condition) to determine which of two parts of an algorithm is used.
the repetition of part of an algorithm until a condition is met or for a specified number of times.
A piece of code that you can easily call over and over again-
a collection of commands made available to a programmer
a description of the behavior of a command, function, library, API, etc.
a collection of commands / functions, typically with a shared purpose
An extra piece of information that you pass to the function to customize it for a specific need
a programming construct that repeats a group of commands.
A particular kind of looping construct provided in many languages. Typically, a for loop defines a counting variable that is checked and incremented on each iteration in order to loop a specific number of times.