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metabolic process that is common to aerobic respiration and alcoholic fermentation

production of CO2

mitochondrial chemiosmosis

1) the potential energy released from the mitochondrial proton gradient produces ATP
2) proteins embedded in inner mitochondrial membrane play an important role in ATP synthesis
3) a proton gradient is established across the inner membrane of the mitochondria

pouring club soda on plant helps it grow because

the roots receive more moisture and the leaves are exposed to more CO2

produces most ATP per glucose molecule during aerobic cellular respiration

ETC and chemiosmosis

reduce the yield of photosynthetic products

1) lower concentration of CO2 in atmosphere
2) fewer calvin cycle enzymes
3) increased photorespiration

how C3 and C4 photosynthesis differ

enzymatic fixation of CO2

cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from

chemiosmotic phosphorylation

ATP synthase location in mitochondria

inner membrane

end products of glycolysis

ATP, NADH, pyruvate

location of proteins of the ETC

mitochondrial inner membrane

glycolysis takes place in


result of hydrogen ions being pumped from mitochondrial matrix across inner membrane and into the intermembrane space

creation of a proton gradient

in glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate,

2 ATP are used and 4 ATP are produced

CO2 is released during what cellular respiration stages

oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

produces the most ATP when glucose is oxidized to CO2 and water

oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)

# of oxygen molecules required for oxidation of one glucose molecule via aerobic respiration


the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox/ oxidation-reduction reaction

loses electrons and energy

oxidative phosphorylation NADH and FADH2 ATP yield

3 ATP for each NADH and 2 ATP for each FADH2

generates ATP made during glycolysis

substrate-level phosphorylation

citric acid cycle outputs

1 ATP, 3 NADH, 2 CO2, 1 FADH2

cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones


primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration

act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water

an experiment needs what to measure oxygen gas consumption during aerobic cellular respiration

a substance that removes carbon dioxide gas

rate of ATP production vs. respiration rate

the higher ATP production, the higher respiration rate

creates the difference in trends of oxygen consumption among different organisms

mode of internal temperature regulation

glycolysis is present in organisms from all 3 domains which supports that

glycolysis is a universal energy-releasing process and therefore suggests a common ancestor for all forms of life

explanation for the the output of oxygen in photosynthesis being labeled after labeling the input water

during the light reactions of photosynthesis, water is split, removing electrons and protons, and oxygen gas is released

products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the calvin cycle


calvin cycle location

stroma of chloroplast

plants absorb what wavelengths of visible light by its pigment

the opposite colors of the leaves

(graph) why is the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis different

other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a

main role of accessory pigment molecules in the thylakoid membranes

harvest photons and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll

the extra ATP consumed by the calvin cycle comes from

cyclic electron flow

the interior of a thylakoid not being separated from the stroma would have the most direct effect on

the synthesis of ATP

relationship between photosynthesis and respiration

photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it

reduction of oxygen which forms water occurs during (photosynthesis/respiration)


generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during (photosynthesis/respiration)

photosynthesis & respiration

primary function of calvin cycle

synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide

how do C4 plants photosynthesize with no apparent photorespiration

they use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO2

CAM plants can keep stomata closed in the day, reducing the loss of water, because they

fix CO2 into organic acids during the night

normal RBC picture

the rate of water movement in = the rate of movement out

process in eukaryotic cells that proceeds normally whether oxygen is present or not


the oxygen for the synthesis of water during oxidative phosphorylation comes from

molecular oxygen (O2)

metabolic pathway common to both cellular respiration and fermentation


glycolysis is considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved because

it is found in the cytosol, does not involve oxygen, and is present in most organisms

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