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45 terms

AP Biology Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Test

metabolic process that is common to aerobic respiration and alcoholic fermentation
production of CO2
mitochondrial chemiosmosis
1) the potential energy released from the mitochondrial proton gradient produces ATP
2) proteins embedded in inner mitochondrial membrane play an important role in ATP synthesis
3) a proton gradient is established across the inner membrane of the mitochondria
pouring club soda on plant helps it grow because
the roots receive more moisture and the leaves are exposed to more CO2
produces most ATP per glucose molecule during aerobic cellular respiration
ETC and chemiosmosis
reduce the yield of photosynthetic products
1) lower concentration of CO2 in atmosphere
2) fewer calvin cycle enzymes
3) increased photorespiration
how C3 and C4 photosynthesis differ
enzymatic fixation of CO2
cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from
chemiosmotic phosphorylation
ATP synthase location in mitochondria
inner membrane
end products of glycolysis
ATP, NADH, pyruvate
location of proteins of the ETC
mitochondrial inner membrane
glycolysis takes place in
result of hydrogen ions being pumped from mitochondrial matrix across inner membrane and into the intermembrane space
creation of a proton gradient
in glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate,
2 ATP are used and 4 ATP are produced
CO2 is released during what cellular respiration stages
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
produces the most ATP when glucose is oxidized to CO2 and water
oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)
# of oxygen molecules required for oxidation of one glucose molecule via aerobic respiration
the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox/ oxidation-reduction reaction
loses electrons and energy
oxidative phosphorylation NADH and FADH2 ATP yield
3 ATP for each NADH and 2 ATP for each FADH2
generates ATP made during glycolysis
substrate-level phosphorylation
citric acid cycle outputs
1 ATP, 3 NADH, 2 CO2, 1 FADH2
cellular process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones
primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration
act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water
an experiment needs what to measure oxygen gas consumption during aerobic cellular respiration
a substance that removes carbon dioxide gas
rate of ATP production vs. respiration rate
the higher ATP production, the higher respiration rate
creates the difference in trends of oxygen consumption among different organisms
mode of internal temperature regulation
glycolysis is present in organisms from all 3 domains which supports that
glycolysis is a universal energy-releasing process and therefore suggests a common ancestor for all forms of life
explanation for the the output of oxygen in photosynthesis being labeled after labeling the input water
during the light reactions of photosynthesis, water is split, removing electrons and protons, and oxygen gas is released
products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the calvin cycle
calvin cycle location
stroma of chloroplast
plants absorb what wavelengths of visible light by its pigment
the opposite colors of the leaves
(graph) why is the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the action spectrum for photosynthesis different
other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a
main role of accessory pigment molecules in the thylakoid membranes
harvest photons and transfer light energy to the reaction-center chlorophyll
the extra ATP consumed by the calvin cycle comes from
cyclic electron flow
the interior of a thylakoid not being separated from the stroma would have the most direct effect on
the synthesis of ATP
relationship between photosynthesis and respiration
photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it
reduction of oxygen which forms water occurs during (photosynthesis/respiration)
generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during (photosynthesis/respiration)
photosynthesis & respiration
primary function of calvin cycle
synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide
how do C4 plants photosynthesize with no apparent photorespiration
they use PEP carboxylase to initially fix CO2
CAM plants can keep stomata closed in the day, reducing the loss of water, because they
fix CO2 into organic acids during the night
normal RBC picture
the rate of water movement in = the rate of movement out
process in eukaryotic cells that proceeds normally whether oxygen is present or not
the oxygen for the synthesis of water during oxidative phosphorylation comes from
molecular oxygen (O2)
metabolic pathway common to both cellular respiration and fermentation
glycolysis is considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved because
it is found in the cytosol, does not involve oxygen, and is present in most organisms