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Terms in this set (45)
women in politics supply side
few believe they have a chance
education, social, economic
lack of autonomy
women in politics demand side
parties reluctant to choose women
rules and laws
America's system makes it hard for women to be in politics
Arab spring's problem
when much of the world was democratizing, Middle East was not
but then there was massive, rapid democracy movements
What explains variation in the Arab Spring?
legitmacy: people or power
What are the reasons why democracies might not go to war with each other?
-people voice opinions, political accountable
-politicians do not want to go to war
-checks and balances
-legacies(justify defense, humanitarian)
-similar ideology values->diplomacy, cooperation
-participation-> engaged-> part of system
-openness, trust, transparency
-open economy, interdependent
What are the factors that make democratization risky?
-transitions rarely peaceful, violence, maybe war
-old power never wants to let go
-third party influences
-currency devolution, economic austerity
-mass mobilization-> nationalism
causing something else
-education, urbanization, industrialization-moving to cities, factories, mine cities
-countries get more modern and develop-leads to democracy
disagrees with moderization
de mesquite and downs
freedom score and liberties
not governmental, groups that are outside of the states
ethic conflict Hindus and Muslims
in some places there is strong civil society engagement
Thomas J. Bierstecker
the world become more of a market economy-less socialism
governments of the world coming together for some purpose-international civil society
a nuclear Iran
3 point model for why countries require nuclear weapons and why some don't
-domestic politics model
Security model (want them)
- states want nukes because of "Security Dilemma"
-rival states have them (or will have them)
-justified as defense
-don't trust intentions of rivals
ex:USSR fearing US-> developed their own nuke
Security model (don't want them)
-security threat recedes
-some Africa abandoned nuclear weapons after security situation changed in 1980s.
-reduces likelihood a have-not will develop nuclear weapons
Domestic politics (have them)
-Nuke programs (or NOT) are the result of interaction among many interest groups
-interests are within and outside the state
example: India accelerates nuclear research after losing badly in war w/ China
domestic politics policies
Identify domestic allies/pressure points
- Inform domestic groups about the economic/environmental costs of nuclear
• Use IMF + World Bank: aid for military
restructuring so nukes not seen as needed
• Find alternate sources of jobs/prestige for leaders reluctant to abandon nukes
(international scientific, political,etc roles)
States choose to build nuclear weapons because they serve important symbolic functions
- state identity/authority/prestige.
• Nuclear weapons are what modern states believe they need to be modern, legitimate, advanced states.
- Similar function to having flag, currency, airline, etc.
• States need nuclear weapons because they are a symbol of international power.
abuse of public power for self gain
the world become more of a market economy-less socialism because (bierstecker)
1. Systemic change
2. Interests/Interest-group pressure
3. Institutions: international and domestic
ethic conflict hindus and muslims
Rural localites: more traditonal contexts = more prone to group solidarity
- Finding: Hindu-Muslim violence an URBAN phenomenon
• Literacy rate: where low, less chance of rumours, manipulaton
- Does not correlate w/violence
• Econ development: where people better off,
less concerned with group identities
- Does not correlate w/violence
"Modernizaton" explanaton = invalid
-international intervention would not have saved many lives
-almost impossible to stop genocide already under way using H.I.
Egypt and Tunisia
no civil war
Syria and Libya
NPT and security model
-NPT allows nuclear have-nots to overcome collective action problem
Reduces likelihood that a have-not will develop
• NPT works if states refrain from pursuing nukes
AND allies don't aid them
• NPT has NOT ended proliferation
- But has slowed it down
south Africa's decision to abandon possibly drive by
norms (don't have them)
Ukraine in the 1990s denuclearizes and sends its weapons to Russia. Why?
• By renouncing nuclear weapons Ukraine:
1. Demonstrated that it was not a threat to Russia
2. Could distinguish itself from 'rogue states': North Korea, Iran, and Iraq
3. Wanted to enhance its prestige as a rule abiding citizen of international society
Norms can have a strong influence on states' identities and behavior
• International norms gradually become rules embedded in domestic institutions
- so can act as break on the spread of nuclear weapons • Norms helped push US to accept a permanent Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
• Non-nuclear NPT states felt US's position on CTBT was illegitimate due to
- Article VI of the NPT ("eventual disarmament").
security model policies
• States that face nuclear opponents will seek their own nukes
• Credible alliance guarantees (nuclear umbrella) MAY stop SOME states
- UK/France may see USA as insufficient guarantor • "International community" may not be able to offer viable alternatives
• Leading nuke powers should focus on restraining non-nuclear states (preemption)
France norms example
Nuclear weapons served mainly symbolic functions for France (no real threat)
• France decided to create nuclear weapons during 1950s
• French leaders wanted to show France was still a major power despite:
- devastation of WWII
- loss of colonial empire,
• France was not dependent on USA.
US allowed genocide to happen - did not take strong leadership role to mobilize the international community. v Why?
1. US had no strong "national interests" in Rwanda (land-locked, poor country, no important resources).
2. Clinton Admin conditioned by recent experience/ "lessons of last war"
3. US officials failed to truly grasp situation in Rwanda
4. US knew Hutus planned on genocide, but refused to
acknowledge it or even utter the word because
v That would require the int'l community to act
under 1948 Genocide Convention.
5. Bureaucratic procedures and the international
community's lack of interest made US not want to
be on its own (result = death of c. 1,000,000).
china, watch out for their economic growth
growing faster than the United States
could lead to war
obstacles to women being in politics
1.Systemic- new world system, how it is impossible for any particular country to swim against the tide of the new world order
2.Interests (domestic)- catching up with the rest of the world
3. Institutions - role of institutions that change the economy
4.Ideology- shift in the way we think
main causes of civil war
Level of income per person
Rate of economic growth
Structure of economy
Country's degree of dependence on "primary commodity exports'
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