42 terms

CSET 3 Physical Education

Body Awareness
The sense of being aware of movement in different parts of the body is an important aspect in the cognitive, social, and physical development of children.

Called propioception "How the body senses the parts of itself (hands, feet, legs, and arms)
Body Awareness-Shape
Instruction in concepts of how the body can form different shapes (eg "Allow your body to form different shapes, wide or tall")
Body Awareness-Balance
Instruction in concepts of balance in the body (eg "balance on one foot)
Body Awareness-Quality
Instruction in the concepts of speed, contrast, force and relaxation (eg "how fast or how slow can you move?)
Body Awareness-Space
Instruction in concepts of sharing space with others (eg "run in a zigzag fashion without bumping into others").
Body Awareness-Exploring
Instruction in the concepts of moving over, under, around, and through, and leading with certain body parts (eg "make a bridge with a partner and then have a third person go under the bridge").
Locomotor Skills
Basic movement skills that are performed in different directions and at different speeds.

Dynamic movements that propel the boy upward, forward, or backward. Foundation of gross motor coordination involving muscles movement.
Locomotor Skills-Jumping
1. Creates activity-specific muscle strength and agility.
2. Requires the body to leap with both feet and to land with both feet.
3. Incorporated into primary-grade activities helps children create patterns (eg "jumping like a kangaroo, a frog, and a rabbit).
Locomotor Skills-Skipping
1. A series of step-hops completed with alternate feet.
2. To help them learn to skip, have them take a step and a small hop the same foot and then ask them to shift to the other foot.
Locomotor Skills-Galloping
1. Is a forward directional movement.
2. Movement can be taught by having the class hold hands and slide in a circle to a rhythmic beat.
Locomotor Skills-Sliding
1. Accomplished by movement on one side of the body.
2. Done on the balls of the feet while shifting weight from the leading foot to the trailing foot.
3. Should be performed in a smooth and controlled manner, without bouncing.
Non-locomoter Skills
Often referred to as static movements because they are passive movements performed while standing.

Includes twisting, turning in place, bending, swaying while moving toward or away from the body enter, raising or lowering parts of the body, or stretching in place. In addition: Twisting and pushing.
Object Manipulation Skills
Complex motor patterns that are basic to specialized sports and are performed with some kind of object (eg ball or bat).

Requires hand-eye or foot-eye coordination.

Includes throwing, catching, kicking, striking.
1. Requires and object to be propelled into space.
2. Primary school children need to proceed through preliminary stages of tossing before entering the stages of throwing a ball with accuracy.
3. Allow children to throw objects of various shapes and sizes.
1. Involves using the hands to stop and control a moving object.'
2. As children develop gross and fine motor abilities, instruction should include reducing the size of the object to catch.
Basic Concepts of Biomechanics
Motion, Newton's 1st, 2nd, and 3rd law, gravity, and friction.
In biomechanics, the awareness of body movements can be associated with force, acceleration, and velocity as they relate to maximum effort.
Newton's 1st Law
An object stays in motion, or at rest, until acted on by an outside force.
Newton's 2nd Law
States the relationship between an object's mass, acceleration, and applied force.
Newton's 3rd law
Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
The center of the human body can be associated with the "center of gravity."
Can be defined as the resistance of motion of two moving objects.
Physical Fitness
The ability to carry out tasks with vigor and alertness.
How much time should a adult/child exercise?
60 minutes per day of exercise is recommended for both adults and children.
Components of Physical Fitness
Muscular Strength, Endurance, Flexibility, Body Composition, Cardio-Respiration
Muscular Strength
Muscular strength is the amount of force exerted with muscles. Needed for things like basketball, etc.

Muscular movements can be isometric with no visible movement (static) or isotonic with signs of movement (dynamic).
The ability to sustain physical effort for long periods of time.

Helps children perform fitness activities without excessive fatigue.
The movement which joints and muscles move through a full range of motion.
Body Composition
The proportion of body fat to lean body mass.
Cardio-Respiratory (Aerobic)
Cardio-respiratory endurance is the ability of the heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system to sustain work by delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the body over a period of time.
Fitness Development Guidelines (FITT)
Teachers should be sensitive to grade level, age, and fitness when teaching physical activities.
FITT Frequency
Question: How often does the activity occur?

Answer: Frequency is the number of sessions that the activity might take to achieve the desired results.
FITT Intensity
Question: How difficult is the activity level (mild to moderate)?

Answer: Intensity gives and indication of how difficult the activity might be. The principle is important to monitor so that instruction can be increased or decreased, depending on the intensity of the activity.
Question: How long does it take to perform the activity?

Answer: The duration of the activity is dependent on the intensity andy type of activity. The minimum of aerobic activity should be 8 to 10 minutes, but the ideal aerobic time should be at least 20 minutes during a 1-hour activity.
Question: What kind of activity is it?

Answer: The type of activity describes the mode of activity. All activities should include a warm-up, strength development, aerobic activity, and a cool-down.
According to the Physical Education Framework for California Public Schools, all Physical education instruction should do the following...
Establish a Safe Environment, Include Class Management, Employ Effective Teaching Behaviors, Transfer Learning, Encourage Practice
Sample PE Instruction Agenda
Warm-up, Instructional Components, Physical Activity, Cool-Down, Discussion and Evaluation.
Average Physical Changes that Occur in Children
1. Rapid growth from infancy to early childhood.
2. Slow, steady growth in middle childhood.
3. Rapid growth spurts during puberty.
4. Gradual, measure, slow grow during adolescence.
Instructional Programs that are Effective in Promoting a Positive Self-Image
Self-responsibility, goal-setting, social interaction, group interaction
Social Aspects of Physical Education-Team Activities
Students interact in group social dynamics that encourage interpersonal strategies for teamwork, including motivating others, taking turns, working together cooperatively, and accepting the physical strengths and limitations of others.
Social Aspects of Physical Education-Self-Responsibility
Students learn to accept personal responsibility for health-related fitness and their own fitness performance without blaming others.
Social Aspects of Physical Education-Social Interaction
Students learn to be empathetic toward others as they respect individual differences.