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85 terms

Sociology Test 1

Chapters 1 & 3
STUDY
PLAY
1.Have and have nots 2.Exploitation 3. Struggle for scarce resources
The three main parts of the Conflict Theory
1.Parts of society serve Functions 2.Interdependent parts 3.Society is like a living organism
The three main parts of the Functionalism
1.day to day interactions 2.signs, symbols, and patterns 3.social meaning arises through social interaction
The three main parts of the Symbolic Interaction
Karl Marx
Sociologist responsible for conflict theory
Emile Durkheim
Sociologist responsible for funtionalism
George Herbert Mead
Sociologist responsible for Symbolic Interaction
vineyard
Conflict theory- view from window
village
Functionalism- view from window
meadow
symbolic interaction- view from window
second self
something/someone we create online
sociology
systematic study of human behavior, social groups, and society
sociology
society and it's influence on human groups
sociological imagination
understanding our lives in the context of society
sociology
views human behavior in societal context which reveals the underlying basis for many social issues
C. Wright Mills
the man responsible for the theory of sociological imagination
sociological imagination
the ability to see societal patterns that influence individual and group life
agents of socialization
what molds and shapes us
Durkheim
performed the first systematic social study of suicide
social integration
the higher the degree of ________________ the lower the suicide rate
8
children involved with media ______ hours a day
150
sociology developed _______ years ago
August Comte
father of sociology
positivism
being able to analyze society using the same systematic process as scientists who study the natural world
Harriet Martineau
woman sociologist- shows a change in the culture
Herbert Spencer
Gave speeches on sociology as a theory involving the survival of the fittest, where the weak are defective. His speeches appealed to the wealthy and sold out.
Karl Marx
Saw the proletariat being exploited by the bourgeoisie, and developed communism.
Catholics
suicide rates low among _____
mechanical solidarity
rural, close-knit bonds
organic solidarity
looser bonds
Max Weber
Came up with "verstehen"- analysis of interaction. Thought sociological study should be performed among the people
Jane Adams
Wanted to better the lives of those whom she studied
WIlliam Dubois
Wanted to help others, co-founded the NAACP
manifest functions
intended consequences of social institutions
latent functions
unintended consequences of social institutions
Dysfunctions
aspects that disrupt ability of society
Culture
learned set of beliefs, values, norms, and material objects shared by a society or group
George Gerbner
The man did the video, "Crisis of Cultural Environment"
culture
stories and messages that create images that govern our conception of life and our behavior
cultivation
the building and maintenance of images that convey values of society
social imperative
our drive to establish groups of people and mingle with others
critical thinking
objectively assessing ideas, statements, and info
sociological thinking
asking questions and questioning answers, taking a closer look at our social world
mass media
forms of communication that transmit standardized messages to widespread audiences
technomedia
the newer and more personalized info technologies
digital divide
the racial divide on the info highway
social solidarity
a lack of the social bonds developed by individuals
ideal type
a conceptual model or typology constructed from direct observation of a number of specific cases and representing the essential qualities found in those cases
pure sociology
study of society in an effort to understand and explain the natural laws that govern its evolution
applied sociology
uses sociological principles, social ideals, and ethical considerations to improve society
paradigms
sets of assumption and ideas that guide research questions, methods of analysis and interpretation, and the development of theory
microlevel analysis
focuses on day to day interactions of individuals and groups in specific social situations
macrolevel analysis
examines broader social structures and society as a whole
society
people who live in a specific geographic territory, interact with one another, and share many elements of a common culture
sociocultural evolution
process in which societies grow more complex in terms of technology, social structure, and cultural knowledge over time
symbol
anything to which group members assign meaning
beliefs
assertions about the nature of reality
values
shared ideas about what is socially desirable
norms
expectations and rules for proper conduct that guide the behavior of group members
folkways
informal rules and expectations that guide people's everyday behavior
mores
salient norms that people consider essential to the proper working of society
laws
formal rules enacted and enforced by the power of the state, which apply to members of society
taboos
prohibitions against behaviors that most members of a group consider to be so repugnant they are unthinkable
sanctions
penalties or rewards society uses to encourage conformity and punish deviance
culture shock
feelings of confusion and disorientation that occur when a person encounters a very different culture
ethnocentrism
the tendency to evaluate the customs of other groups according to one's own cultural standards
cultural relativism
asks that we evaluate other cultures according to their standards, not ours
subcultures
groups that share many elements of mainstream culture but maintain their own distinctive customs, values, norms, and lifestyles
countercultures
reject the conventional wisdom and standards of behavior of the majority and provide alternatives to mainstream culture
multiculturalism
encourages respect and appreciation for cultural difference
eurocentrism
belief that european cultures have contributed the most to human knowledge and are superior to all others
real culture
what people do in everyday social interaction
cultural lag
inconsistencies within a cultural system, especially in relationship between technology and non-material culture
cultural ecological approach
examines the relationship between culture and its environment
cultural hegemony
domination of cultural industries of elite groups
John Calvin
theologist who came up with the theory that everything is predestined, and our predestiny is revealed through the blessings we recieve
elect
those predestined for heaven
protestant work ethic
John Calvin came up with the __________ ___________ __________
George Ritzer
Theorist who wrote "McDonaldization of Society"
predictability
Just like at a McDonalds, we expect _____________
Max Weber
man responsible for theory of rationalization
rationalization
theory that says there are a set of social action governed by reason, calculation + rational pursuit of one's interest
religion, reason
Rationalization= switch from ____________ to ____________
social order, control
the purpose of norms is to maintain _________ and ___________
sanctions
__________ maintain the norms
social imagination
biography + history