Public Speaking Final Chp.18,19,20,22

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Information Overload
Being given too much information to process or handle
Information Underload
A speech which fails to provide anything new-given too little info, underestimating the amount of information needed
Informative Speech
A speech designed to impart new information, a new skill, or a fresh way of thinking about something- divided into three categories:
1.) objects and ideas
2.)people and events
3.)processes and procedures
Idea or Concept
A speech given to define something tangible or abstract
Object Speech
A speech about something tangible
Concept Speeches
Speeches of Definition
Events and People
a speech designed around a remarkable person or compelling event
Processes and Procedures
A speech designed to convey how something works or how to do something
Concrete
A description attributed to words that evoke precise meaning; language that is free of jargon
Abstractions
Something that is vague, language that is neither concrete nor specific
Repetition
Restatement of the exact same words
Attitude
A mental set or predisposition to respond to something favorably or unfavorably, a readiness to respond positively or negatively
Persuasion
The deliberate attempt to change or reinforce attitudes, values, believes, or behaviors
Values
core beliefs, the standards we use to judge that which is good and bad, worthwhile and worthless, ethical and unethical, right and wrong
Proposition
The relationship the speaker wishes to establish between accepted facts and his or her desired conclusions
Propositions of fact
An assertion that something does or does not exist, is or is not true, or is or not of value, an effort to prove something factual
Proposition of value
an assertion of a statements worth; a type of persuasive speech focusing on what the speaker thinks should be done
Reasons approach
the presentation of reasons to justify a speakers goal
Refutation format
the style of debate when one side points out the flaws in the other sides arguments and offers new evidence to support its own claim
Proposition of policy
a recommendation for change or no change; a type of persuasive speech focusing on what speaker thinks should be done
Monroe's Motivated Sequence *see page 395
An organizational framework particularly effective in moving receivers towards accepting and acting on a proposition of fallacy
Ethos
The ability to convince the audience of your good character or credibility
Logos
logical proof demonstrating the reasonableness of arguments
Pathos
the ability to develop empathy and passion in others
Credibility
Audiences judgments of a speakers competence, character and charisma
Initial Credibility
The receivers perception of a speakers credibility prior to his or her speaking
Derived Credibility
Audience perceptions of a speakers credibility during the giving of a speech
Terminal Credibility
the audiences perception of a speakers credibility after listening to his or her speech
Evidence
Material used to validate a claim
Specific Instances
A short example that supports a specific point
Illustrations
extended examples or narratives
Toulmin Reasonable Argument Model
a model describing the parts of an argument
Deductive Reasoning
Reasoning that takes a known idea or principle and applies it to a situation; reasoning that moves from the general to the specific
Syllogisms
A form of deductive reasoning containing a major premise, minor premise, and claim
Inductive Reasoning
reasoning that relies on observation and specific instances to build an argument, reasoning progresses from specific observations to a conclusion
Casual Reasoning
Reasoning that unites two or more events to prove that one or more of them caused the other
Reasoning from Analogy
the process of comparing like things and concluding that because they are comparable in a number of ways, they also are comparable in another, new respect
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
A pyramid progressing from the most basic to the most sophisticated human needs
Logical Fallacy
A flawed reason
Hasty Generalization
The act of being too quick to draw an inference, jumping to a conclusion on basis of too little evidence
Post Hoc Ergo Proper Hoc
A logical fallacy proposing that because one event preceded another, it caused it
Slippery Slope
An erroneous assertion that one action will set in motion a chain of events
Red Herring
A distraction, the process of leading the audience to consider an irrelevant issue
False Dichotomy
A proposition that requires the audience to choose between two options when in reality there are many
False Division
A false division suggesting that if something is true of the whole, it is also true of one or more of the parts
Glittering Generality
The use of positive association designed to encourage idea acceptance
Argument Ad Hominem
Name calling; the use of offensive and insulting names to win an argument
Bandwagon Appeal
An appeal to popular opinion
Speech of Introduction
A speech designed to create a desire among audience members to listen to a featured speaker
Speech of Presentation
A speech presenting an award
Speech of Acceptance
A speech given in response to a speech of presentation
Commencement Address
A speech given to a graduating class
Keynote Address
A speech usually given at a conference and designed to generate enthusiasm for and commitment to a desired outcome
Speech of Tribute
A form of commemorative speaking honoring a living or dead person or an event
Eulogy
A special form of tribute speech that pays tribute to a deceased person, usually given at a gravesite or at a memorial service
After Dinner Speech
A speech that is relevant to the occasion but designed to entertain
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