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53 terms

Metro Bio 1000 Exam 1

Exam covering lectures 01-20 thru 02-08, chapters 1-2 in book; multiple choice and matching questions worth 76 points
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hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question; a testable prediction
independent variable
variable that is believed to be the cause; the variable that is controlled or manipulated in a controlled experiment
dependent variable
variable that is the effect; the variable that is measured or observed in a controlled experiment
control group
the group in an experiment that is not exposed to the test treatment; it provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group
test treatment group
also called experimental group; the group in an experiment that is exposed to the test treatment
theory
a hypothesis that is well supported by scientific data
pseudoscience
a set of claims that seems scientific, but which is based on assumptions not verified by experiments
atom
the basic unit of matter
proton
a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
neutron
a subatomic particle that has no charge and is found in the nucleus of an atom
electron
a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is found orbiting around the nucleus of an atom
element
any of the more than 100 known types of atoms (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom
molecule
a combination of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
ion
an atom or molecule that is electrically charged (positive or negative), as a result of losing or gaining electrons
ionic bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion; the bond forms because the oppositely charged particles attack each other
covalent bond
a chemcial bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms and negatively charged atoms; bond that forms between water molecules and gives water the properties of cohesion and adhesion
polar
describes a molecule that has an uneven distribution of charge, such that the molecule has a positive end and a negative end; these molecules are dissolved in water
non-polar
describes molecules that have an equal distribution of charge, and thus, do not have partial charges associated with their ends; these molecules repel water
cohesion
the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules of the same substance in a solid or liquid form
adhesion
the intermolecular force that allows molecules of different substances to adhere to each other
solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances; water is the universal solvent
hydrophilic
describes the properties of a substance that is capable of being dissolved in water; a polar or charged molecule
hydrophobic
describes a substance that is not dissolved in water; a non-polar or neutral molecule
acids
molecules that release hydrogen ions in water
bases
molecules that remove (i.e., bind to) hydrogen ions from water
pH
describes the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution; solutions with high concnetrations of H+ are acids and have a pH less than 7; solutions with low concentrations of H+ are bases and have a pH greater than 7
macromolecule
a large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
hydrocarbons
large organic molecules composed of C-H bonds
monomer
a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer; the subunit or building block used to make polymers
polymer
a macromolecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
glucose
a monosaccharide sugar that has the molecular formula: C6H12O6; it is the sugar form which circulates in our blood; and it is the monomer used to build larger carbohydrate structures used for energy storage and some structural components of cells
carbohydrate
molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; macromolecules made of sugars; these include simple sugars, starches, and fiber. All but fiber provide energy.
monosaccharide
a carbohydrate composed of a single sugar monomer; examples: glucose, fructose
disaccharide
a carbohydrate composed of two sugar monomers; examples: sucrose, maltose
polysaccharide
a carbohydrate composed of many sugar monomers; examples: glycogen, cellulose
starch
polysaccarides formed by plants, consisting of chains of hundreds or thousands of glucose molecules
cellulose
a polysaccaride formed by plants, that consists of chains of thousands of beta-linked glucose molecules; indigestable material = fiber
amino acid
the monomer used to build proteins or polypeptides; contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
protein
a macromolecule composed of chains of amino acids; have numerous functions in body
enzyme
specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions
fatty acid
chains of C-H bonds; monomers used in building fats
glycerol
3 carbon molecule that forms the backbone of triglyceride fats
lipid
macromolecule made from fatty acids; includes fats, steroids, phospholipids
saturated fats
trigylceride fats that are made of 3 fatty acid chains with the maximum number of hydrogens bond to the carbons in the chain; tend to be the form of fats used by animals to store energy; solid at room temperature
unsaturated fats
trigylceride fats that are made of 3 fatty acid chains without the maximum number of hydrogens bond to the carbons in the chain; presence of C double bonds; tend to be the form of fats used by plants to store energy; liquid at room temperature
nucleic acid
macromolecules made from nucleotides; contain a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base; includes molecules like DNA, RNA, ATP
deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA, the nucleic acid used to store genetic information in our cells; contains instructions on how to build proteins
nucleotide
monomer used to build nucleic acids; consists of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base
hydrolysis
process by which macromolecules are broken apart in chemical reactions; involves the addition of a water molecule
dehydration synthesis
process by which monomers are joined together to form macromolecules; involves the removal of a water molecule