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possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question; a testable prediction
variable that is believed to be the cause; the variable that is controlled or manipulated in a controlled experiment
variable that is the effect; the variable that is measured or observed in a controlled experiment
the group in an experiment that is not exposed to the test treatment; it provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group
test treatment group
also called experimental group; the group in an experiment that is exposed to the test treatment
a set of claims that seems scientific, but which is based on assumptions not verified by experiments
a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is found orbiting around the nucleus of an atom
any of the more than 100 known types of atoms (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
an atom or molecule that is electrically charged (positive or negative), as a result of losing or gaining electrons
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion; the bond forms because the oppositely charged particles attack each other
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms and negatively charged atoms; bond that forms between water molecules and gives water the properties of cohesion and adhesion
describes a molecule that has an uneven distribution of charge, such that the molecule has a positive end and a negative end; these molecules are dissolved in water
describes molecules that have an equal distribution of charge, and thus, do not have partial charges associated with their ends; these molecules repel water
the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules of the same substance in a solid or liquid form
the intermolecular force that allows molecules of different substances to adhere to each other
describes the properties of a substance that is capable of being dissolved in water; a polar or charged molecule
describes the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution; solutions with high concnetrations of H+ are acids and have a pH less than 7; solutions with low concentrations of H+ are bases and have a pH greater than 7
a large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer; the subunit or building block used to make polymers
a monosaccharide sugar that has the molecular formula: C6H12O6; it is the sugar form which circulates in our blood; and it is the monomer used to build larger carbohydrate structures used for energy storage and some structural components of cells
molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; macromolecules made of sugars; these include simple sugars, starches, and fiber. All but fiber provide energy.
polysaccarides formed by plants, consisting of chains of hundreds or thousands of glucose molecules
a polysaccaride formed by plants, that consists of chains of thousands of beta-linked glucose molecules; indigestable material = fiber
the monomer used to build proteins or polypeptides; contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
trigylceride fats that are made of 3 fatty acid chains with the maximum number of hydrogens bond to the carbons in the chain; tend to be the form of fats used by animals to store energy; solid at room temperature
trigylceride fats that are made of 3 fatty acid chains without the maximum number of hydrogens bond to the carbons in the chain; presence of C double bonds; tend to be the form of fats used by plants to store energy; liquid at room temperature
macromolecules made from nucleotides; contain a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base; includes molecules like DNA, RNA, ATP
DNA, the nucleic acid used to store genetic information in our cells; contains instructions on how to build proteins
monomer used to build nucleic acids; consists of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base
process by which macromolecules are broken apart in chemical reactions; involves the addition of a water molecule
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