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Terms in this set (34)
The tendency to believe that after learning an outcome, anyone could have foreseen it (aka "I-knew-it-all-along" phenomenon).
Not just accepting conclusions or answers, instead examining assumptions, discerning hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
A testable prediction often implied by a theory.
A statement of the procedures used to define research variables (how something is measured in an experiment).
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participates in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
An observation technique in which one person, or a small group of people, is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn (not including national studies).
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
A statistical index of the relationship between two things.
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables, and the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
The perception of a relationship where none exists.
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. with random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
Assigning participants by chance to experiment or control groups of the experiment, minimizing preexisting differences between the two groups.
An experiment in which neither the test subject nor the research staff know which group is receiving the treatment or the placebo.
An experimental result based on expectation, any effect on behavior because the test subject assumed they were receiving the actual treatment when it was not.
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent.
In an experiment, one group must not receive the treatment, to compare and contrast with the experimental group.
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
The most frequently occurring number score(s) in a distribution.
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean.
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
An ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
The post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.
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