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12 terms

Problem-Solving

STUDY
PLAY
concepts
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
prototype
a mental image or best example of a category
algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier -- but also more error-prone -- use of heuristics
heuristics
Sets of strategies, rather than strict rules, that act as guidelines for discovery-oriented problem solving.
representative heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevent information
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
anchoring heuristic
an insufficient adjustment up or down from an original starting value when judging the probably value of some event or outcome
insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
conjunction fallacy
An error that occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone.
gamblers fallacy
belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn't occurred recently.