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APUSH 2 Winter Break Study Guide (Complete)
Terms in this set (135)
1. Why was Thomas Jefferson's "Revolution of 1800" remarkable?
It was a peaceful first transfer of power between two political powers.
2. Upon becoming president, Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans in Congress immediately repealed what?
The excise tax on whiskey.
3. Why did Thomas Jefferson and his followers oppose John Adams's last-minute appointment of new federal judges?
It was an attempt by a defeated party to entrench itself in the government.
4. What chief justice carried out the ideas of Alexander Hamilton concerning a powerful federal government?
5. How did the legal precedent for judicial review become established?
When the Supreme Court declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional (Marbury vs. Madison).
6. The case of Marbury vs. Madison involved the question of who had the right to do what?
Who had the right to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional (judicial review).
7. How did John Marshall help to strengthen the judicial branch of government?
By asserting the doctrine of judicial review of congressional legislation.
8. Why did Thomas Jefferson distrust large standing armies so much?
They could be used to a establish a dictatorship.
9. What did Thomas Jefferson do to guard American shores?
He constructed 200 tiny gunboats.
10. Why did Napoleon choose to sell Louisiana to the United States?
1) He had suffered misfortunes in San Domingo.
2) He hoped the territory would help the U.S. thwart off the British.
3) He didn't want to drive the Americans into the arms of the British.
11. Why was Jefferson so conscience-stricken about the purchase?
He believed it was unconstitutional.
12. What were some things that the Lewis and Clark expedition yielded?
1) A rich harvest of scientific expeditions.
3) Hair-raising adventure stories.
4) Knowledge of the Indians in the region.
13. What did Aaron Burr conspire to do after he killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel?
He conspired with General James Wilkinson to separate the Western part of the U.S. from the East, expanding their new confederacy with invasions of Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida.
14. What was "impressment"?
The forced enlistment of sailors.
15. What did Jefferson do in order to deal with both British and French violations of America's neutrality?
He enacted an economic embargo.
16. For what reason did war hawks demand that the US go to war with Great Britain?
They wanted to wipe out renewed Indian residence, defend American rights, gain more territory, and revenge the manhandling of American sailors.
17. How did Tecumseh feel about Indians giving land to the white man?
He felt as though they should not cede control to the whites without all Indians agreeing.
18. How/where did Tecumseh die?
He was killed in 1813 at the Battle Of Thames.
19. What areas of the country supported the War of 1812?
The West and the South.
20. Why did Federalists oppose the acquisition of Canada?
It would add more agrarian states from the wild Northwest.
1. The House of Representatives decided the 1824 presidential election when what happened?
None of the candidates were able to hold the popular vote and the election came to a deadlock.
2. What was the "corrupt bargain" of which John Quincy Adams was accused?
Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, convinced Congress to elect John Quincy Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
3. How successful was JQA as president?
He was one of the least successful presidents in American history.
4. On what was Andrew Jackson's political philosophy based?
Suspicion of the federal government.
5. What did AJ's inauguration as president symbolize?
The ascendancy of the masses.
6. What was the purpose behind a "spoils system"?
To reward political supporters with public office.
7. Under AJ, what was the result of his particular brand of the spoils system?
The appointment of many corrupts and incompetent officials to federal jobs.
8. What section of the country was most hurt by the Tariff of 1828?
9. Who was most responsible for diffusing the crisis over this Tariff (question 8)?
10. What did AJ do in response to South Carolina's nullification of the Tariff of 1828?
He threatened to send federal troops to any state that tried to "nullify" federal laws.
11. Why did AJ's administration support the removal of Native Americans from the eastern states?
The whites wanted the Indians' land.
12. What did AJ's veto of the recharter of the Bank of the United States represent in terms of political power?
A major expansion of presidential power.
13. On what did AJ base this veto of the Bank of the United States?
He found the bill harmful to the nation as well as unconstitutional.
14. What might we say was the "cement" that held the Whig party together in its formative days?
The hatred of Andrew Jackson.
15. What event allowed Americans to move into Texas?
An agreement was concluded between Mexican authorities and Stephen Austin.
16. At what battle did Texans win their independence as a result of the victory over Mexican armies?
Battle of San Jacinto.
17. Why did the Anglo-Texans (those who came from the US) eventually rebel against Mexican rule?
They wanted to break away from a government that had grown too authoritarian.
18. Why did presidents AJ and Martin Van Buren both hesitate to extend recognition to and annex the Texas Republic?
Antislavery groups in the United States opposed the expansion of slavery.
19. Where did most of the early American settlers in Texas come from?
The South and Southwest.
20. Who was "Tippecanoe" in the Whigs' 1840 campaign slogan?
1. What happened as a direct result of the invention of the cotton gin?
The Southern planter class became increasingly dependent on slave labor to wring profits from the sprawling plantations across the South.
2. What group virtually dominated politics and society in the South?
Members of the planter aristocrats.
3. Why was plantation agriculture actually wasteful?
It's excessive cultivation of cotton despoiled the good earth.
4. What was the "job" of most Southern plantation mistresses (wives of the house)?
Commanding a sizable household staff of mostly female slaves.
5. What discouraged immigration of Germans and the Irish to the South?
Competition with slave labor.
6. As their main crop, what did Southern subsistence farmers mostly plant?
7. In reality, what were the majority of white southerners?
8. Where did most slaves live in the South by the mid-nineteenth century?
9. What particular group of people would have been most "pro-Union" in the South?
10. What caused a great increase in the slave population in the first half of the nineteenth century?
11. How could Northern attitudes toward free blacks best be described?
Liking the individual, but hating the race.
12. How did the profitable Southern slave system affect the economy of the region as a whole?
Hobbled the economic development of the region.
13. What was perhaps a slave's greatest horror, and was the theme of Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin?
The enforced separation of slave families.
14. By 1860, slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" of America. What states/territories of today make up that region?
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.
15. What were some ways in which slaves actually fought the system of slavery?
Working slowly, sabotaging equipment, and poisoning their master's food.
16. What was the most uncommon and least successful form of slave resistance?
17. Name the authors of the following abolitionist literature: (a) Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World; (b) The Liberator; (c) Narration of the Life of ...; and (d) American Slavery as It Is
A. David Walker
B. William Lloyd Garrison
C. Frederick Douglass
D. Theodore Dwight Weld
18. To what did William Lloyd Garrison pledge his dedication?
Immediate abolish-ion of slavery in the South.
19. Many abolitionists turned to political action in 1840 when they backed the presidential candidate of what party?
20. In arguing for the continuation of slavery after 1830, how did American southerners position themselves in comparison to the rest of the Western world?
1. How was the British-American dispute over the border of Maine solved?
Compromise that gave each side some territory.
2. Arrange the following United States acquisitions in chronological order: (a) Oregon; (b) Texas; (c) California.
3. What attracted most Americans who migrated to the Oregon Country?
Rich soil of the Willamette River Valley.
4. What group secured the nomination of James K. Polk in the 1844 presidential election?
5. In the 1840s, the view that God had ordained the growth of an American nation stretching across North America came to be commonly known as what?
6. In the Oregon treaty with Britain in 1846, the northern boundary of the US was established to the Pacific Ocean along what line?
49 degrees/49th parallel.
7. What was the primary reason that the British government decided to compromise on the issue of the Oregon Country border?
Their belief that territory was not worth fighting over.
8. What was Polk's first approach to acquiring the land of California?
Buying the area from Mexico.
9. Polk claimed "American blood [had been shed] on the American soil" after a clash between Mexican and American troops. Where did this clash occur?
The Rio Grande.
10. What did Polk hope to achieve when the war with Mexico began?
Limited war ending with the conquest of California.
11. With the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ending the conflict with Mexico, what did the US give to Mexico?
$15 million and an agreement to settle claims.
12. What did the "Wilmot Proviso" make clear?
The burning issue of slavery in the territories.
13. What became the largest single addition of American territory?
14. What group of Old World Europeans was first to settle in California?
15. How did the Spanish Franciscan missionaries treat the native inhabitants of California?
1. In order to maintain the two great political parties as vital bonds of national unity, how did politicians publicly address the topic of slavery?
They did not actually address it.
2. What did the debate over slavery in the Mexican Cession threaten to do?
Split national politics along north/south lines.
3. In 1848, what did the "Free Soil" party platform advocate?
Wilmont Proviso, free government homestead, opposition to slavery, and the end of slaves in the District of Columbia.
4. What did the idea of "popular sovereignty" mean regarding the slavery issue?
Slavery would be determined by the vote of the people.
5. Why did the public like the idea of this "popular sovereignty"?
It fit with Democratic tradition of self-determination.
6. What single event brought turmoil to Zachary Taylor's presidential administration?
The discovery of gold in California.
7. What made settling in/traveling to California risky during this time?
8. What was the status of the South, politically and economically, by 1850?
9. How did Harriet Tubman gain fame?
By helping slaves escape to Canada.
10. During the 1850s, how did slaves most frequently gain their freedom?
11. What did Daniel Webster call for in his famous "Seventh of March" speech?
A new, more stringent slave law.
12. During the debates of 1850, who argued that there was a "higher law" than the Constitution that compelled him to demand the exclusion of slavery from the territories?
William H. Seward.
13. What did the Compromise of 1850 determine regarding slavery in the New Mexico and Utah territories?
Slavery was to be decided by popular sovereignty.
14. What was the most alarming aspect of the Compromise of 1850 to Northerners?
The decision concerning slavery in the District of Columbia.
15. What was significant in the long term about the election of 1852?
It saw the victory of the pro-South Northerner.
16. Who was the man who opened Japan to the United States?
17. What was a prime territorial target for acquisition in the 1850s, which would have gone along perfectly with the idea of Manifest Destiny?
18. Most American leaders believed that the only way to keep the new Pacific Coast territories from breaking away from US control was to do what?
Granting the territories quick statehood.
19. Stephen A. Douglas's plans for deciding the slavery question in the Kansas-Nebraska scheme would require the repeal of what?
The Missouri Compromise.
20. Why did it seem that a southern route would be preferable for the new transcontinental railroad?
Northern areas were organized territories.
1. What was the intent of Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin?
To show the cruelty of slavery.
2. What was a direct and specific result of most northerners reading Stowe's book?
They swore they would have nothing to do with the fugitive slave law.
3. In 1856, what demonstrated a dramatic breaking point over slavery in Kansas?
An attack on Lawrence by a gang of pro-slavery raiders.
4. What did the document known as the "Lecompton Constitution" propose?
That the people were allowed to vote the constitution as "with slavery" or "without slavery".
5. The mid-1850s situation in Kansas indicated that the idea of ___________ was no longer practical in the territories.
6. What did actions on the Senate floor between Preston S. Brooks and Charles Sumner demonstrate was going on in politics, and by extension, throughout the country itself?
The fact that passions over slavery were becoming dangerously inflamed in both the North and the South.
7. What was the central plank (party position) of the "Know-Nothing" party in the 1856 election?
8. Nativists in the 1850s were known for what kinds of attitudes?
Anti-Catholic and anti-foreign.
9. What did the Supreme Court of the US (SCOTUS) expect would happen as a result of its ruling in the Dred Scott case?
To lay to rest the issue of slavery in the territories.
10. For a majority of Northerners, what was the most outrageous part of the Dred Scott ruling?
Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory.
11. What happened as a result of Stephen A Douglas's debates with Abraham Lincoln?
Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate.
12. What was the intent of John Brown in his infamous raid on Harper's Ferry?
To secretly invade the South with a hand full of followers, call upon slaves to rise, arm them, and establish a black-free state as a sanctuary.
13. In the 4-way race for president in 1860, what was the position on slavery held by each candidate (Abraham Lincoln, Stephen Douglas, John Breckenridge, and John Bell)?
Abraham Lincoln - ban slavery in the territories.
Stephen Douglas - enforce popular sovereignty.
John Breckenridge - extend slavery into the territories.
John Bell - preserve the union by compromise.
14. What was the reaction of South Carolinians when Abraham Lincoln eventually won the presidency?
Rejoice because they now had an excuse to secede.
15. For what reasons was President James Buchanan reluctant to use force against the South?
It would shatter all hopes of rejoinment, men were needed to control Indians in the West, and no authority in the Constitution for using armed forces.
1. What was Lincoln's position regarding military action at the beginning of the Civil War?
Quick action to show to folly of secession.
2. What did Lincoln hope to achieve with a Union victory at Bull Run?
A capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond.
3. Arrange the following in chronological order: (a) Battle of Bull Run; (b) Battle of Gettysburg; (c) Lee's surrender at Appomattox; (d) Battle of Antietam.
1.A. Battle of Bullrun
2.D. Battle of Antietam
3.B. Battle of Gettysburg
4.C. Lee's surrender at Appomattox
4. Why might it be said that the Union's defeat at the Battle of Bull Run was actually better than a victory?
The defeat caused Northerners to face the reality of a long, difficult war.
5. Gen. George B. McClellan seemed to have a fatal flaw as a commander, and it eventually cost him his job. What personal characteristic of McClellan's was unacceptable to President Lincoln?
6. What was the direct result of the Confederate victory in the Peninsula Campaign?
The Union turned to a strategy of total war.
7. What elements made up the final, ongoing Union war strategy as the North tried to defeat the Confederacy once and for all?
A naval blockade, undermining the Confederate economy, seizing control of the Mississippi River, and capturing Richmond.
8. What was regarded as the biggest Confederate threat to the Union blockade of the South?
The Merrimack (The Virginia).
9. After halting Gen. Robert E. Lee's troops at Antietam, what happened to Gen. McClellan?
He was removed from his field of command.
10. What were the two major battles of the Civil War fought on Union soil?
The Battle of Gettysburg and the Battle of Antietam.
11. Why was the Battle of Antietam particularly critical (think big picture)?
It probably prevented intervention by Great Britain and France on behalf of the Confederacy.
12. The North's "victory" at Antietam allowed President Lincoln to go forward with what?
The Emancipation Proclamation.
13. Slavery in the US was abolished by what?
The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
14. When Lincoln made his famous Emancipation Proclamation, where were slaves declared to be free?
States still in rebellion against the United States.
15. What was the long term (again, big picture) effect of the Emancipation Proclamation?
Strengthening the moral cause and diplomatic position of the Union.
16. At what point in the Civil War did the Union allow blacks to enlist as soldiers?
After the Emancipation Proclamation.
17. At what point in the Civil War did the Confederacy allow blacks to enlist as soldiers?
Only a month before the war ended.
18. Why was the Battle of Gettysburg (big picture) significant?
The Union victory meant that the Southern cause was doomed.
19. Why was the Union victory at Vicksburg of strategic importance?
It gave the Union army complete control over the Mississippi River and cut the Confederacy in two.
20. What was a consequence of General William T. Sherman's style of warfare?
A shorter war that saved lives.
21. In the 1864 election, who was Lincoln's running mate (who would eventually succeed him in office)?
22. In the same election, who did the Democratic Party nominate to oppose Lincoln's reelection?
23. The Union army's victory in the capture of ___________ was probably critical to Lincoln's reelection.
Atlanta and Mobile.
24. How did Lincoln's assassination affect the South directly, although many there rejoiced over it?
It was a calamity.
25. What was/were the significant (long term, big picture) result(s) of the end of the Civil War?
- The end of slavery
- Nullification and secession
- Expanded federal power of taxes
- First federal social wellfare
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