The Unification of Italy.
Terms in this set (42)
Treaty of Vienna
In 1815 Austria, Britain, Prussia and Russia agreed to put 150,000 men in the field against Napoleon Bonaparte (France) it meant that old order was restored.
Was founded by Giuseppe Mazzini in 1831 which created ideas of an Italian nation state based on democracy.
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian politician, journalist and activist for the unification of Italy and spearheaded the Italian revolutionary movement.
Balbo, d'Agalgio and Gioberti proposed conservative ideas.
Was the awakening describing the development of national identity among Italians in the movement for national unification. it was seen through music and literature.
It was the poor part of Italy despite its poverty it had a strong army. In 1814 it was made a absolutist state by Victor Emmanuel.
Was ruled by Austrian officials and had military strong holds (Quadrilateral)
Quadrilateral fortresses were the defensive system of the Austrian empire
Dominated central Italy and the pope had some power although there was only a small army.
Were made up of Tuscany, Modena and Parma. there where in the sphere of Austrian influence.
Kingdom of Naples
Was the poorest party of Italy and people died of hunger and large armies controlled the people.
It was Italian for charcoal burners, 1800-31 was an informal network of secret revolutionary societies. They raised a revolution in Modena but Austria crushed it. They were prepared to use violence to get rights for the people.
There were 21 revolutions, The Austrian army came a defeated the revolutionary troops. It was a hopeless cause as they were regionally based revolts.
Cultural challenge of the Risorgimento
The first revolutions were in Naples and Turin speaking out for liberty of the Italian people. It was hard because there was a patchwork of different languages. Verdi ' the chorus of the Hebrew slaves' was empowering.
Journal il Politecino
Published in 183 and raised a common culture and language among the educated classes.
They were created in 185 after the french left Italy and they wanted to reject the absolute government ( in which one person has overall authority) They believed revolution was the only way, they didn't do that much but kept the idea of political reform alive.
Ownership of Land
This was a problem as landowners demanded higher rents so peasants became alienated and Milan suffered in the 1847-8 depression.
Division between the rich and poor
There were lots of chorea outbreaks so many deaths, widespread deforestation also worsened the malaria, Piedmont opened the first workhouse as it was a good way to make people work for free.
Italian Nationalism impact
Mazzini created Young Italy and wished to see a nation built by the people, the plan of an attempted army coup in Piedmont failed. There was limited followers as the peasants had nothing in it for them.
He wrote a book called the hopes of Italy in 1844, he suggested that the piedmontese start the expelling of the Austrians from Lombardy he didn't think what if the Austrians said no.
He strengthened the argument towards more conservative political change, He also thought that the Austrians should be fought against but that positive change will come naturally.
He wanted to get rid of foreign influence he argues in favour of Italian independence.
Pope Pius XI
He came into power in 1846, released 2000 prisoners and ended press censorship, free press was allowed in the papal state, He was a liberal pope and started a protest with the Austrian government.
There were economic problems that led to food riots and unrest. Vast underemployment and Piedmont and Tuscany demanded change. Charles Albert passed some reforms allowing the relaxing of press censorship and a local government forming.
Ferdinand 11 did not want to reintroduce the 1812 constitution, and his compromise constitution was rejected. In 1848 there were elections and Ferdinand was no longer king. Naples launched demonstrations and the new constitution was finally past.
Milan boycotted cigarettes, and the inspiration came from the France revolutions. Metternich resigned which triggered revolution even more.
1848 Milan (capital of Lombardy)
Battle still commenced after Metternich resigned and because of the temporary collapse of Austrian rule a new provisional government was formed.
People wanted the freedom of Daniele Manin who was fighting for freedom from Austrian Rule, He was finally released and led the republic.
Made in 1848 it was the Piedmontese constitution, it created a constitutional monarchy and granted civil liberties.
War On Austria.
War was declared on Austria by Piedmont in March 1848, It was led by Charles Albert and first they attacked Lombardy but in July The Austrian Army defeated the Piedmontese. Piedmont was forced to pay 65 million reparations.
In Austria there was a new prime minister that wouldn't take any shit and was very strict and crushed any attempts of uprisings. After Charles Albert resigned Victor Emmanuel II too over.
This was issued by Pope Pius and was in response to Durangos disobedience. It stated that the War with Austria didn't have his blessing.
In Tuscany Giuseppe was appointed, He wanted a peoples war against Austria. A Tuscan Republic was declared. Until the Constitution was suspended
The republic of venice.
Was led by Daniele Manin and became a symbol of resistance against the Austrians. But after a year the Austrians invaded in 1849.
Counter-Revolution in Naples.
In 1848 Ferdinand launched it with the aim of closing down parliament, poor people supported it.
The radicals began to rule and assassinated the mew pm, The pope called for help from Spain, France and Naples.
After Pope Pius XI fled from Rome after Rossi the new prime minister was assassinated. The Roman Republic was declared in 1849, when there was a new republican government due to Pope Pius IX leaving.
Failure of the 1848-9 Revolutions.
Lack of unity, People wanted different things and the peasants didn't support the Risorgimento so it was hard to gain support to fight against one specific thing.
Austrian and French intervention.
Austria had a temporary military weakness so people started to attack but the Austrians actually had really strong forces and just trashed them.
Lack of foreign support
Charles Albert said that Italy would go it alone which was wrong because if they had military help from other countries.
They decided to be a mediator between the piedmontese and Austria and created the Armistice of Salasco which didn't really benefit anyone.
The reaction of the Papacy
After issuing the allocation people were spilt up and forces marched into the papal states and destroyed the Roman republic.
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