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Terms in this set (25)
polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones
What is the difference between D and L structures of same compound?
all hydroxyl groups are switched to opposite side (enantiomers);
D last hydroxy on R, L last hydroxy on L (DRLL coolj)
- stereoisomers that vary in chirality at the anomeric carbon (new chiral center)
- anomeric C is next to O in ring
- β is up (beta is beat up), α is down (bow down to alpha)
- can mutarotate from one to the other so long as it is a reducing sugar (hemiacetal at anomeric)
- β favored due to steric hinderance in α (axial)
Fischer to Haworth projection
groups right go down, groups left go up (DR LU)
What is the most common linkage?
Type O blood contains _____ sugars while Types A and B contain _____.
Aldaric Acid Synthesis
turn groups at top(C1) and bottom(C6) into carboxylic acid groups (makes aldaric acid)
*Measure chirality of middle carbons
What is the Osazone Test used for?
Changes carbonyl and adjacent hydroxyl group into phenyl hydrazine derivatives (C2 epimers produce same osazone)
What does Benedict's Test look for?
detect presence of aldehydes/reducing sugars by oxidizing them to carboxylic acid groups with copper cation
What does Tollen's Test look for?
also, detects presence of reducing sugars by oxidizing them, but forms silver mirror if positive
What is Periodate oxidation used for?
Breaks apart C-C bonds of sugar by oxidation, increasing terminal OH groups by 1 bond to oxygen and internal OH groups by 2 bonds to oxygen (term OH=formaldehyde, internal OH= HCOOH, internal carbonyl=CO2)
Killiani Fischer Synthesis does what?
Increases carbon chain of aldose by 1, products occur as C2 epimers
Ruff Degradation is used for...
removes C1 from aldose
Esterification of Sugars
Cyclic Carbohydrate + Anhydride = ester at every OH
Aldonic Acid Synthesis
Oxidation from Ald. --> Carbox.
Reacts only at anomeric C (due to resonance); Acid + ROH = Ether ; forms glycoside bond (non-reducing)
What is the purpose of the Wolf Degradation?
reverse of Killiani Fischer after making oxime intermediate (removes stereochemistry at C2 of original aldose)
What is important about Glycolysis from organic chemistry perspective?
*1 oxiation step (mostly isomerization/phosphate exchange)
*Regulatory steps involve ATP
*Produce intermediate products that feed other pathways
*Oxidation releases energy (NAD+ = oxid agent)
Carbs that are diastereomers differing at only one chiral center
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