35 terms

Combo with CompTIA A+ Chapter 7 & 8

Combo with CompTIA A+ Chapter 7 & 8
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Terms in this set (...)

Dual Channel
A motherboard feature that improves
memory performance by providing two 64-bit channels between memory and the chipset. DDR, DDR2, and DDR3 DIMMs can use dual channels.
Parity
An error-checking scheme in which a ninth, or "parity," bit is added. The value of the parity bit is set to either 0 or 1 to provide an even number of ones for even parity and an odd number of ones for odd parity.
Parity Error
An error that occurs when the number of 1s in the byte is not in agreement with the expected number.
Single Channel
The memory controller on a motherboard that can access only one DIMM at a time. Compare to dual channel and triple channel.
Synchronous
A type of memory stored on DIMMs that runs in sync with the system clock, running at the same speed as the motherboard.
ECC
A chipset feature on a motherboard that checks the integrity of data stored on DIMMs or RIMMs and can correct single-bit errors in a byte. More advanced ECC schemas can detect, but not correct, double-bit
errors in a byte.
Dual Ranked
Double-sided DIMMs that provide two 64-bit banks. The memory controller accesses first one bank and then the other. Dual-ranked DIMMs do not perform as well as single-ranked DIMMs.
Single Ranked
Perform better than Dual ranked
GPF
General Protection Fault (GPF) A Windows error that occurs when a program attempts to access a memory address that is not available or is no longer assigned to it.
Rambus
A memory technology by Rambus and Intel that uses a narrow network-type system bus. Memory is stored on a RIMM module. Also called RDRAM, Rambus, or Direct
RDRAM.
Boot Record
The first sector of a floppy disk or hard drive volume; it contains information about the disk or volume. On a hard drive, if the boot record is in the active partition, then it can be used to boot the OS. Also called boot sector.
Boot Sector
The first sector of a floppy disk or hard drive volume; it contains information about the disk or volume. On a hard drive, if the boot record is in the active partition, then it can be used to boot the OS. Also called boot record.
DMA
DMA (direct memory access) channel A number identifying a channel whereby a device can pass data to memory without involving the CPU. Think of a DMA channel as a shortcut for data moving to/from the device and memory.
Cluster
One or more sectors that constitute the smallest unit of space on a disk for storing data (also referred to as a file allocation unit). Files are written to a disk as groups of whole clusters.
Fault Torerance
The degree to which a system can
tolerate failures. Adding redundant components, such as disk mirroring or disk duplexing, is a way to build in fault tolerance.
File System
The overall structure that an OS uses to name, store, and organize files on a disk. Examples of file systems are NTFS and FAT32.
Formatting
Preparing a hard drive volume, logical drive, or floppy disk for use by placing tracks and sectors on its surface to store information (for example, FORMAT A:).
HDD
The main secondary storage device of a PC. Two technologies are currently used by hard drives: magnetic and solid state. Also called a hard disk drive (HDD).
Hot Swapping
Plugging in a device while the
computer is turned on. The computer will sense the device and configure it without rebooting. In addition, the device can be unplugged without an OS error. Also called hot-swapping.
NTFS
New Technology file system (NTFS), The file system for the Windows 2000/XP/Vista operating system. NTFS cannot be accessed by other operating systems such as DOS or Windows Me. It provides
increased reliability and security in comparison to other methods of organizing and accessing files. Vista requires that NTFS be used for the volume on which Vista is installed.
SATA
serial ATA (SATA). An ATAPI cabling method that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80-conductor cable. See also parallel ATA.
PATA
parallel ATA (PATA). An older IDE cabling method that uses a 40-pin flat or round data cable or an 80-
conductor cable and a 40-pin IDE connector. See also serial ATA.
SMART
S.M.A.R.T. (Self-Monitoring Analysis and Reporting
Technology) A system BIOS and hard drive
feature that monitors hard drive performance, disk
spin up time, temperature, distance between the
head and the disk, and other mechanical activities
of the drive in order to predict when the drive is
likely to fail.
SSD
Solid State Device (SSD). An electronic device with no moving parts. A storage device that uses memory chips to store data instead of spinning disks (such as those used by magnetic hard drives and CD drives). Examples of solid state devices are jump drives (Also called key drives or thumb drives), flash memory cards, and solid state disks used as hard drives in notebook computers designed for the most rugged uses. Also called solid state disk (SSD) or solid state drive (SSD).
Volume
A collection of dynamic disk(s).
Spanning
Using a spanned volume to increase the size of a volume.
Stripped Volume
A type of dynamic volume used for
two or more hard drives that writes to the disks evenly rather than filling up allotted space on one and then moving on to the next. Compare to spanned volume.
Mirrored Volume
The term used by Windows for the
RAID 1 level that duplicates data on one drive to another drive and is used for fault tolerance.
FAT
A table on a hard drive or floppy disk used by the FAT file system that tracks the clusters used to contain a file.
RAID
RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks or redundant array of independent disks) Several methods of configuring multiple hard drives to store data to increase logical volume size and improve performance, or to ensure that if one hard drive fails, the data is still available from another hard drive.
RAID 0
Striped Volume. No Redundancy.
RAID 1
Mirrored. Redundancy.
RAID 3
Striping with a dedicated parity disk. Redundancy.
RAID 4
Uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk.
RAID 5
Uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks.