79 terms

intro to human communication final

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nonverbal communication
also: suprasegmentals

behaviors, attributes, or objects that communicate messages that have social meaning; does not include sign language; depends on context
functions of nonverbal communication
- complementing, repeating, substituting, regulating, deceiving
complementing
the use of nonverbal cues to complete, describe, or accent verbal cues; mom shaking finger
repeating
the use of nonverbal cues to convey the same meaning as the verbal message; referee
substituting
the use of nonverbal cues in place of verbal messages when speaking is impossible, undesirable, or inappropriate
regulating
the use of nonverbal cues to control the flow of communication
deceiving
purposely misleading others by using nonverbal cues to create false impressions or to convey incorrect info; poker face
types of nonverbal communication
time; eye behavior; facial expressions; body movement; touch; space
eye behavior
oculesics; functions: influence attitude and change perception; indicate degree of attentiveness, interest, arousal; express emotions; regulate interaction; indicate power and status; form impressions on others
facial expressions
provide cues about our and others' emotional states. it is often possible to learn about others' moods and feelings from their facial expressions; clearly depicted emotions: anger, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust
body movement
Ekman and Friesen; emblems, illustrators, regulators, affect displays, adaptors
emblems
translate directly into words are used for specific words or phrases; hitchhiker's thumb, peace sign
illustrators
accent, reinforce or emphasize a verbal message; child holding up hand while saying "I'm so tall"
regulators
control, monitor, maintain interaction between speaker/ listener. cues tell us when to stop, continue, hurry, etc.; head nod, looking at clock, shift in posture
affect displays
expression of emotion; sad face, slouching, jumping up and down
adaptors
help one feel at ease in communication situations, difficult to interpret; smoothing hair, playing with coins, hands in front of face
touch
haptics; tactile, or touch communication; one of the most basic forms of communication. meaning depends on type of touch, who is touching, situation and cultural background; categories: functional/professional, social/polite, friendship/warmth, love/intimacy, sexual arousal
space
proxemics: the study of the use of space and of distance between individuals when they are communicating; territoriality: the need to identify certain areas of space as one's own
Hall's four distance zones
intimate zone: 0-1.5 feet
personal space: 1.5-4 feet
social space: 4-12 feet
public space: 12 ft+
time
chronemics; the study of how people perceive, structure, and use time as communication
paralanguage/vocalics/paralinguistics
the way we vocalize the words we speak; includes pitch, vocal force(loudness), rate, quality; stress on different words results in different meaning
silence
an extended period of time without sound; vocal pause: a hesitation, usually short in duration
smell
olfactics: study of smell or odors; Americans have the most smell- aversive culture in the world; we spend billions of dollars on products to enhance smell (personal/environmental); base many perceptions on smell
artifact
personal adornment or possession that communicates information about a person; flashy car/tattoos
nonverbal cues
open to interpretation, based on perceptions, and do not have dictionary definitions
nonverbal cues are interdependent
meaning of one nonverbal cue often depends on correct interpretation of several other simultaneously occurring cues
nonverbal cues are subtle
may not be noticed by all people
anticipation reaction
level of anxiety prior to giving a speech or waiting to talk
confrontation reaction
surge in one's anxiety level felt as the speech begins
adaptation reaction
gradual decline of anxiety that begins about one minute into the presentation
visualization
develop a mental picture of a successful speech
systematic desensitization
method that reduces apprehension by visualizing increasingly frightening events
public speaking training
learning and practicing presentation skills with a trained professional
elements of delivery
voice, body movement, articulation
voice
pitch should be appropriate for speaker and audience, volume should be appropriate for venue using amplification if needed, rate rapid enough to maintain audience interest, but slow enough for message to be understood, quality should not detract
body movement
facial expressions: eye contact, mouth, movement; gestures: movements of hands, arms, fingers, that describe and emphasize message; posture: position of body; poise: assurance of manner, "the whole picture"
articulation
should be fluent and precise so the message is conveyed clearly and remains the focus
conversational style
eye contact, enthusiasm, vocal expressiveness, spontaneity, fluency, fillers
eye contact
ability of the speaker to establish eye contact with the audience to maintain attention and interest
fillers
"like, um, uh"- do not have meaning relevant to message
fluency
smoothness of speech
spontaneity
ability of the speaker to deviate from planned presentation and add anecdotes/ examples and respond appropriately to questions
vocal expressiveness
changes in inflection, rate, and volume that engage audience in message
enthusiasm
level in interest and excitement speaker displays about message
language
a structured system of signs, sounds, gestures and marks that is used and understood to express ideas and feelings among people within a community, nation, geographic area, or cultural tradition
elements of language
phonology, morphology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics
phonology
sounds; the actual phonemes we make when we talk; sounds differ according to language and dialect
semantics
words; symbols that stand for objects and concepts. represent concrete and abstract things/ ideas and are given meaning by a particular culture over time. for understanding to occur, all parties in the communication must agree on meaning
grammar
rules that govern how words are put together to form phrases and sentences. enables us to make complete sentences and to understand the sentences made by others
morphology
words
syntax
sentence structure
meaning
the association of words with ideas, feelings, and contexts. words only acquire meaning through the context in which they are used and the fact that those who use them give them meaning
idioms
words whose meanings cannot be understood by the ordinary usage. component of figurative language; frog in my throat
denotation
objective meaning of word; the standard dictionary definition
connotation
subjective meaning of a word; what a word suggests because of feelings or associations it evokes. includes the effects of nonverbals and the understanding of the person who is receiving the message
concrete word
a symbol for a specific thing that can be pointed to or physically experienced through the senses. represent specific, tangible objects; book, chair
abstract word
a symbol for an idea, quality or relationship. represents things that cannot be experienced through the senses and therefore can mean different things to different people; happiness, faith
geographic differences
pop/soda; jimmies/sprinkles; hoagie/hero/sub
age differences
speed, gay, stoned
educational differences
aspiration pneumonia, crank angle sensor, individual education plan
jargon
language used by certain groups or specific disciplines that may be technical or too specialized to be understood by the general population
slang
language used by groups to keep the meaning of the communication within the group. words change frequently and are often region or group-specific
euphemism
use of an inoffensive or mild expression in place of one that might offend, cause embarrassment, or suggest something unpleasant; passed away, pre-owned, undocumented worker, sanitation engineer, flight attendant
language based communication barriers
bypassing, indiscrimination, polarization, pendulum effect
bypassing
a misunderstanding that occurs because of the symbolic nature of language
indiscrimination
neglect of individual differences and overemphasis of similarities; teenagers, students, liberals, politicians; form of perception set; indexing and dating
indexing
identifying specific people, ideas, events, or objects a statement refers to
dating
form of indexing that sorts people, events, ideas, and objects according to time
polarization
the tendency to view things in terms of extremes (rich/poor, good/bad); this can be exaggerated by language, including the pendulum effect
pendulum effect
an escalating conflict between two individuals or groups resulting from their use of polar terms to describe and defend their perceptions of reality
linguistic determinism
theory that language determines thought; Safir-Whorf hypothesis
linguistic relativity
theory that people from different language communities perceive the world differently
culture affects language use
language influences thought, thought influences language, and each are influenced by culture
high context culture
culture in which the meaning of the communication act is inferred from the situation or location. language tends to be less assertive, non-specific and indirect within high-context cultures. environment gives context U.S. is not a high context culture
low- context culture
culture in which meaning of the communication act is inferred from the messages being sent and not the location where the communication occurs
effective language use
use short common words whenever possible to express yourself clearly and leave less room for misinterpretation. verbosity is unnecessary
vivid language
active and direct language that brings a sense of excitement and forcefulness to a message. persuasive and has an emotional impact on the listener
code switching
the ability to change your language and personal presentation according to different situations
pragmatics
social use of language; skill: eye contact