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Mr. Vogt's Semester Exam note cards
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Gravity
Terms in this set (49)
Mass
The amount of matter
present. (m)
Weight
The gravitational pull
which one body
applies upon another.
(F sub g)
Gravitational Field Strength
Ratio of the
gravitational
attraction applied
upon an object to the
mass of the object.
This is a vector and it
points toward the
center of gravity of the
attracting body. (g)
Normal Force
The push which a
surface applies onto
another surface at an
angle of 90o
to either. (F sub n)
surface.
Conversion Factor
A value that is equal
to the ratio of two
quantities which are
measurements of the
same physical
quantity but vary as to
the units used in
making those
measurements.
Proportionality Factor
A value that is equal
to the ratio of two
quantities which may
or may not be
measurements of the
same type of physical
quantity.
Direct Proportion
The relationship
between two variables
when their ratio is a
constant.
Coefficient of
kinetic friction
The ratio of the
magnitude of the
frictional force to the
magnitude of the
normal force for two
surfaces sliding by
each other. Also
known as coefficient
of 'sliding friction'.
(u sub k)
*u sub k = F sub fk / F sub N
Force
A pushing or pulling (F)
Variable
Any physical quantity
whose value can be
altered (whether by
intent or not).
Constant
A value which cannot
be changed by any
human means.
Control
A variable whose
value is not permitted
to change during an
experiment.
Independent Variable
The variable whose
values are set by the
experimenter prior to
an experiment being
Dependent Variable
The variable whose
values can not be
known prior to an
experiment being
conducted.
Clock Reading
A point ('position')in
time marked by the
measure on a timeskeeping device.
(t)
Elapsed Time
Duration between two
points in time.
(triangle t)
Same as Time interval
Origin
Position assigned the
value of zero units.
Position
Location relative to a
fixed, chosen origin.
(x barbed arrow)
x-naught
Position at zero
seconds.
(X barbed arrow sub o)
Displacement
Change in position,
'directed' distance.
(triangle x barbed arrow)
Speed (average)
Rate of travel. The
ratio of distance
traveled to the
elapsed time.
(v sub ave)
Slope
Ratio of the change in
the dependent
variable to the
change in the
independent variable
for a section of data
on a graph.
Rise/Run
Intercept
Coordinate on an axis
where a curve or line
intersects that axis.
Speed (instantaneous)
The speed at a
specific clock reading
(v sub ins or v)
First Quarter Symbols
x barbed arrow = Position
delta x barbed arrow = Displacement
Delta x = Distance
v = speed
v barbed arrow = velocity
t = clock reading
delta t = elapsed time
Base Physical Quantities (7)
Length, mass, time, electric current, thermo temperature, amount of substance, intensity
Calibration
To provide meaning
(often through
adjustments) to the
readings off a
measuring device
Period
The amount of
elapsed time for the
completion of one
cycle or oscillation of
a repetitious motion
(T)
2nd Quarter Names
F sub G barbed arrow = Force due to gravitation
G barbed arrow = Gravitational Field Strength
F barbed arrow sub f = Force due to friction
F barbed arrow n = Normal force
U sub s = Coefficient of static friction
F barbed arrow sub net = Net force
U sub k = Coefficient of Kinetic friction
M = Mass
Amplitude
The maximum
displacement of a
point in a medium
from its equilibrium
position.
Damping
The attenuation of the
amplitude of a
periodic wave due to
energy being dissipated to the
surroundings.
Micron
One-millionth of a
meter (10-6m)
(u)
Accepted value
The average value
obtained from a
multitude of carefully
made measurements
or a value defined to
be a set quantity by
the science
community.
Absolute error
The absolute value of
the difference
between a
measurement and the
accepted value.
Relative error
The ratio of the
absolute error to the
accepted value
treated usually as a
percentage.
Uncertainty
The margin about a value wherein the
actual measurement is
believed to reside.
Typically it is
represented by the +/-
attached to statistics
on a value. (This will be
thought of as the
same idea as error in
this course although
there exists diverse
usage of this term.
Accuracy
A statistic describing
how close a value is to
the accepted value.
Precision
A statistic describing
the range of scatter
amongst
measurements of the
same quantity.
Calibrate
To provide meaning
(often through
adjustments) to the
readings off a
measuring device.
Pendulum
A physical object that
oscillates under the influence of a linear
restoring force (most
typical involving
gravitation).
Law
A statement that
describes the
relationship between
observable variables.
Oscillation
One 'to' and 'fro'
movement of a
repetitious pattern of
events
Acceleration
Rate of change in
velocity.
(a barbed arrow)
Dimensional analysis
Effort designed to
bring the powers
applied to variables
on both sides of an
equation into
agreement.
unit analysis
Effort designed to
bring the units on both
sides of an equation
into agreement.
scalar
Any physical quantity
whose value is
completely specified
by stating number and
units. No statement of
direction is to be
included.
vector
Any physical quantity
whose value is only
completely specified if
direction is
communicated along
with number and units.
Conversion factor
A value that is equal
to the ratio of two
quantities which are
measurements of the
same physical
quantity but vary as to
the units used in
making those
measurements.
proportionality factor
A value that is equal
to the ratio of two
quantities which may
or may not be
measurements of the
same type of physical
quantity
;