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Early Latin America

What was the ancient capital of the Incas?


What products came from the Spanish and Portuguese colonies of Latin America?

servants, slaves, and retainers

Who were the Iberians?

Spaniards and Portuguese

During the Middle Ages, which Christian kingdoms emerged in Europe?

Aragon and Castile

Identify three major events that happened in Spain in 1492.

lost control to Muslims, religious favor, Jews left

Define Encomiendas

grants of American Indian laborers

The political organization of Porugal and Castile was made up of what groups of people

lawyers, judges, professional bureaucracy

Portugal developed an agricultural economy heavily based on what product?


Spain's first established colony in the New World was located on what island?


How were the Spanish cities in the caribbean different from those of Europe?

served a a model for actions elsewhere

By the 1520's, what two activities had replaced gold-hunting expeditions in the Caribbean?

ranches and sugar plantations

Identify: Bartolome de Las Casas

Dominican friar ---> initiated the struggle for justice

Identify Hernan Cortes

led expedition to Mexico

Identify Moctezuma II

Aztec emperor that was captured and killed by Cortes

Identify Tenochtitlan

capital city of Aztec

Identify Francisco Pizarro

led men to conquest of Incan Empire

Identify Francisco Vazquez de Coronado

searched for legendary city of gold

What advantages did the conquistadors have over the Native Americans they encountered?

horses, firearms, steel weapons, and ruthless leadership

Whom in Indian society did the Spanish conquers eliminate? Whom did they keep in place?

Spanish landowners

Although most of Central and South America was agrarian, _____ was an essential activity and the basis of Spain's rule in the West Indies.


What metal has heavily gathered in both Mexico and Peru?


The Haciendas (rural estates) of the Spanish colonies began producing goods primarily for _____.

consumers in america

The raising of sheep in Ecuador, New Spain and Peru lead to the development of _____ where common cloth was produced.

small textile sweatshops

The fleet system that Spain used for trade in the colonies was made possible largely by what type of ship?


Much of the silver that came from the Americas did not stay in the Spanish treasury because it was needed to pay for ____.


Additionally, the arrival of American silver contributed to ____ and ____first in Spain and later throughout Western Europe.

wars; debt

The _____gave Portugal all claims to the east and Spain all claims to the west in the New World by drawing a hypothetical line around the globe. The country of _____belonged to Portugal.


The King of Spain ruled the colonies in the New World through the ____, which issued laws and gave advice to the king.


To govern the Americas more effectively, Spain created two _____located in Mexico City and Lima.


THe viceroyalties were subdivided into 10 judicial divisions called_____.


Brazil was settled mainly to produce _____, which was in short supply in Europe.


_____did most of the backbreaking work on the plantations


Although white planter families and African slaves occupied the upper and lower classes of society, _____ represented a growing segment of the population.


The Brazilian economy took a dive in the 1680's until a group known as the _____found _____in the interior of Brazil.


In what region was gold discovered in Brazil?


The discovery of gold and diamonds in the Brazilian interior was a mixed blessing

positive: greatest source of gold in the Western world
negative: gold strikes by slaves

The port of Rio Janeiro grew in size and importance due to its proximity to what money generators?


People in Brazil were categorized by


By 1700, slaves made up _____ of the Brazilian Population


Who are the castas?


Who are the peninsulares?


Who are the creoles?


A growing sense of self identify contributed to the movements for _____in Latin AMerica


Marriages in the Americas were often _____and accompanied by a _____.


By the 18th century, Spain's hold in the New World wasa reduced by


When the Spanish king, Charles ii, died without an heir, _____ recognized a member of the Bourbon famiy as the rulers of Spain.


Spanish dynasty responsible for eighteenth century reforms with in the Spanish empire.


Bourbon reforms and commercial changes were a double-edged sword for the American economy.


What disrupted old patterns of power and influence, raised expectation, and sometimes provoked violent colonial reactions in both Spanish America and Brazil?


Identify Tupac Amaru


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