7.34-7.45 Decreased Values: Diarrhea, uremia, metabolic acidosis, DKA, ischemia, diarrhea, respiratory acidosis. Increased Values: Respiratory alkalosis hyperventilation, incorrect ventilator settings, liver disease, sepsis, metabolic alkalosis, diuretics, volume depletion, vomiting. Critical values: <7.25 or >7.55. 7-20. Final product of protein metabolism. BUN is an indicator of problems with kidney function. Decreased Values: Hemodilution, infancy, liver failure, low protein intake, malabsorption, nephrotic syndrome, starvation. Increased Values: Acute glomerulonephritis, drugs: aminoglycosides, burns, chronic nephritis, dehydration, GI bleeding, prerenal azotemia, postrenal obstruction, renal failure, shock, stress. 95-107. Critical value <80 or >115. Decreased Values: Acute infections, Addison's disease, Adrenal insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, SIADH, renal failure with sodium loss, vomiting, drugs: bicarbonates, corticosteroids, diuretics. Increased Values: Diarrhea, dehydration, hyperparathyroidism, overuse of normal saline, renal failure, respiratory acidosis, drugs: acetazolamide/hydrochlorothiazides. Female: 0.6-1.2 Male: 0.8-1.4. Decreased Values: Decreased muscle mass, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy. Increased Values: Acute tubular necrosis, CHF, dehydration, diabetic nephropathy, eclampsia, glomerulonephritis, hypothyroidism, muscular dystrophy, pre-eclampsia, pyelonephritis, renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, shock, urinary tract obstruction, nephrotoxic drugs and aminoglycosides. 65-110. Critical valuesL <50 or >400. Decreased Values: Adrenal insufficiency, alcohol, exogenous insulin, adrenocortical insufficiency, hypopituitarism, insulinoma, malignancy, drugs: ethanol, insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents, propranolol. Increased Values: Acromegaly, acute/chronic pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, chronic pancreatitis and DM. 3.5-5. Decreased Values: Alkalosis, ascites, burns, chronic pyelonephritis, Cushing's syndrome, diarrhea, low potassium intake, vomiting, drugs: diuretics, salicylate, and insulin. Increased Values: Acidosis, Addison's disease, dehydration, infection, IV administration, renal failure (acute or chronic), severe tissue damage, severe hemolysis, drugs: ACE inhibitors, ACE receptor blockers, NSAIDs, spironolactone, triamterene. Alkalosis, shallow respirations, irritability, confusion, drowsiness, weakness, fatigue, arrhythmias, tachycardia, irregular rhythm, bradycardia, lethargy, thready pulse, decreased intestinal motility, nausea, vomiting, and ileus. 135-147. Decreased Values: AIDS, adrenal insufficiency, CHF, cirrhosis, exercise, heavy sweating, nephrotic syndrome, NG suctioning, SIADH, vomiting, water intoxication, drugs: ACE inhibitors, D5W, diuretics, hypotonic saline, thiazides. Increased Values: Cushing's Syndrome, dehydration, dietary intake, diabetes insipidus, DM, excessive diaphoresis, IV administration, sweating, vomiting, drugs: hypertonic saline, OCPs, steroids. Female 37-48. Male 42-52. Child 31-43. Decreased Values: Iron deficiency anemia, microcytic anemia, thalassemia, bone marrow suppression, chronic infection, normocytic anemia, acute blood loss, hemorrhage, anemia of chronic disease, fluid volume excess, hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, macrocytic anemia, liver disease. Increased Values: Burns, congenital heart disease, COPD, dehydration, shock, vomiting. 100,000-400,000. Decreased Values: Alcohol, aplastic anemia, bone marrow infiltration/replacement/suppression, chemotherapy, DIC, Evan's syndrome, HIV, Drugs: Cephalosporins, clopidogrel, quinidine. Increased Values: Acute blood loss, cancer, CML, essential thrombocytopenia, infection, iron deficiency, myelofibrosis, pre-eclampsia, post-splenectomy. Female 4.7-6.1. Male 4.2-5.4. Decreased Values: Addison's disease, alcohol abuse, anemia of chronic disease, bone marrow suppression, chronic infection, chronic renal failure, hemolysis, hemorrhage, anemias across the board, drugs: Acetaminophen, allopurinol, amphetamines, chemotherapy, digoxin, streptokinase. 3.5-5.5. Assists in the transport of bilirubin, calcium, progesterone, and certain medications. This test can help determine if a patient has liver disease or kidney disease, or if the GI tract doesn't absorb nutrients properly. Decreased Values: Burns, chronic liver disease, diabetes mellitus, glomerulonephritis, hemodilution, acute infections, malabsorption, malignancy, malnutrition, nephrotic syndrome, trauma, drugs: estrogens. Increased Values: Dehydration, hemoconcentration, and shock. 0.3-1. Bilirubin which is one of the components of bile, is formed in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It is also formed as a result of hemoglobin breakdown, as in the destruction of red blood cells. Decreased Values: N/A. Increased Value: Alcoholism, biliary obstruction, cirrhosis, gallstones, hepatitis, liver metastasis, drugs: Hepatoxic drugs. 8.5-10.2. Decreased Values May Indicate: Acute pancreatitis, alcoholism, bisphonates, chronic renal failure, magnesium deficiency, tumor lysis, vitamin D deficiency. Drugs: biphosphanates. Increased Values: Acromegaly acute pancreatitis, Addison's disease, alcoholism, antacid abuse, aluminum intoxication, bone cancer, hyperparathyroidism, renal failure. Chvostek's sign: A clinical test for hypocalcemia test. A light tap over the facial nerve in front of the ear, will cause contractions of the facial muscles. Trousseau' sign: The client's thumb and index finger will draw together (caropopedal spasm) when a blood pressure cuff is inflated above the systolic pressure for 3 minutes. Signs and Symptoms: Irritability and anxiety, paresthesias, seizures, laryngospasm, broncos-Sam, heart failure, muscle cramps. CATS: Convulsions, Arrhythmias, tetany, spasms and strider, numbness in the fingers. Calcium >11. It can be the outcome of hyperparathyroidism and bone metastasis with calcium reabsorption from the breast, the lung, or multiple myeloma. Fatigue, weakness, lethargy, anorexia, nausea, constipation, and kidney stones from increased calcium salts. ECG activity may show shortened QT segments and depressed T-Waves, bradycardia, and varying degrees of heart block. 2.4-4.1. Decreased Values: Alcoholism, antacid abuse, carbohydrate loading, chronic alcoholism, diarrhea, hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism, hypomagnesia, hypothyroidism, vitamin d deficiency, vomiting. Drugs: OCPs and Phosphate binders. Increased Values: Antacid abuse, Addison's disease, bone tumors, cirrhosis, hyperparathyroidism, osteolytic bone mets, renal failure, sarcoidosis, tumor lysis syndrome, drugs: Diuretics and excessive vitamin D supplements. 4.8-7.5. Decreased values: DKA, diarrhea, fever, high protein diet, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, sleep, starvation, UTI. Increased values: Gastric suction, renal tubular acidosis, alkalosis, vegetarian or low carb diet, vomiting: acetazolamide sodium bicarbonate.