1. Which of the following is not a reason why the division of labor enhances productivity?
d. It requires strict management control over worker time and motion.
2. An example of early uses of the functions of management is the _______________.
b. arsenal of Venice where ships were built
3. In Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith described the breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks and called this ______________.
c. division of labor
4. Which of the following was a major result of the Industrial Revolution?
c. factory manufacturing
5. Frederick Taylor performed most of his work in _______________.
b. steel companies in Pennsylvania
6. Before Taylor, which of the following approaches was used to establish guidelines for an individual's work?
b. rule-of-thumb method
7. Frederick Taylor advocated which of the following management principles?
a. Work and responsibility should be divided almost equally between managers and workers.
8. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's work began in the area of _________________.
a. laying bricks
9. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were the first researchers to utilize motion pictures to the study of _____________.
b. hand-and-body motions
10. Which of the following phrases is most associated with scientific management?
b. one best way
11. The primary issue that motivated Taylor to create a more scientific approach to management was ______________.
a. worker efficiency
12. Probably the best-known example of Taylor's scientific management was the ______________ experiment.
b. pig iron
13. Based on his scientific management principles, Taylor suggested which of the following pay principles?
d. incentive pay
14. A "therblig" concerns what scientific management workplace issue?
b. basiProxy-Connection: keep-alive Cache-Control: max-age=0 hand motions
15. General administrative theory focuses on ________________.
a. the entire organization
16. General administrative theorists devoted their efforts to _________________.
c. making the overall organization more effective
17. Fayol was interested in studying ___________, whereas Taylor was interested in studying ________.
b. all managers; first-line managers
19. According to Weber's ideal bureaucracy, ______________ occurs when employees are placed in jobs based on technical qualifications.
d. formal selection
20. Bureaucracy is defined as a form of organization characterized by __________________.
all of the above; a. division of labor | b. clearly defined hierarchy | c. detailed rules and regulations
21. The quantitative approach to management has also been referred to by which of the following names?
b. operations research
22. The quantitative approach evolved from the development of mathematical and statistical solutions to ______________.
b. military problems in World War II
23. The quantitative approach involves applications of _______________.
a. statistics, information models, and computer simulations
24. Quantitative techniques have become less intimidating with the advent of _______________.
c. sophisticated computer software
25. ______________ is a technique that managers use to improve resource allocation decisions.
a. Linear programming
26. Decisions on determining a company's optimum inventory levels have been significantly influenced by _________________.
c. economic order quantity modeling
29. A company that sees its employees as the driving force behind the organization probably follows which managerial approach?
b. organizational behavior
30. Which of the following is most closely associated with the organizational behavior approach to management?
b. concern for employee motivation
31. According to the textbook, which of the following early advocates of organizational behavior was concerned about deplorable working conditions?
a. Robert Owens
32. Which of the following early advocates of organizational behavior created the field of industrial psychology, the scientific study of people at work?
b. Hugo Munsterberg
33. ______________ was one of the first to recognize that organizations could be viewed from the perspective of individual and group behavior.
c. Mary Parker Follett
34. Which of the following early advocates of organizational behavior was the first to argue that organizations were open systems?
d. Chester Barnard
35. Which four theorists are associated with the early organizational behavior approach?
a. Barnard, Follett, Munsterberg, and Owen
36. Which of the following was a major contribution of Hugo Munsterberg?
b. He created the field of industrial psychology
37. Munsterberg's work in industrial psychology is easily connected with what other management approach?
d. scientific management
38. Contemporary management practices that emphasize work groups as a means to increasing productivity can be traced to which of the following authors?
b. Mary Parker Follett
39. Which of the following is true concerning the management beliefs of Barnard?
d. Organizations are social systems that require human cooperation.
40. Without question, the most important contribution to the developing field of organizational behavior came out of the ________________.
d. Hawthorne Studies
41. The Hawthorne Studies were initially devised to study ______________.
c. the effect of illumination levels on employee productivity
42. What scientist is most closely associated with the Hawthorne Studies?
43. One outcome of the Hawthorne Studies could be described by which of the following statements?
a. Social norms or group standards are the key determinants of individual work behavior.
44. A system can best be defined as _________.
b. a set of interrelated and interdependent parts
46. Which of the following types of systems does not interact with its environment?
47. Which of the following is considered a systems input?
d. raw materials
48. In an open organizational system, products and services produced by the organization can be considered as which of the following?
49. Open organizations are those that _________.
a. interact with their environments
50. According to the systems approach, effective management must ensure that ________.
a. its organization succeeds in ignoring governmental regulations
51. A manager who believes that no one set of principles applies equally to all work environments is most likely advocating which management approach?
52. The contingency approach to management is based upon which of the following?
c. exceptions to generally accepted management principles
53. Each of the following represents a popular contingency variable except ________.
d. ideal bureaucratic structure
54. The fastest growth in the U.S. workforce is expected to be among ________________.
b. Asian workers
55. Workforce diversity refers to differences in employees such as ________________.
all the above; gender | age | race
56. Workforce diversity will be significantly affected in the next decade by _______.
b. the aging of the U.S. population
57. TQM differs from earlier management theories because _______________.
b. high quality and low costs are both seen as important to productivity
58. A learning organization develops the capability to ______________.
c. continuously learn, adapt, and change
59. __________ is the process of developing businesses to pursue trends and changes that no one else has responded to previously.
60. Knowledge management involves encouraging the members of the organization to ________________.
d. systematically gather information and share it with others
61. The sales and marketing component of e-business is known as _____________.
62. ________ and ________ were two of the pioneers in the area of total quality management.
d. Deming; Juran
64. Which of the following types of e-businesses uses the Internet to perform its traditional business functions better, but not to sell anything?
b. e-business enabled organization
65. Levi Strauss & Co. is categorized as which of the following?
b. e-business enabled
66. An internal organizational communication system that uses Internet technology and is accessible only by organizational employees to communicate with its global workforce is called a(n) _______________.
67. An organization whose entire existence is made possible by and revolves around the Internet is categorized as which of the following?
c. total e-business
68. Which of the following involves changing, revolutionizing, transforming, or introducing new products or services or new ways of doing business?
70. ______________ is the generic term used to describe the quality revolution that swept through both the business and public sectors during the 1980s and 1990s.
b. Total quality management
72. A ______________ organization is one that has developed the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change.
73. ______________ involves cultivating a learning culture where organizational members systematically gather knowledge and share it with others in the organization so as to achieve better performance.
d. Knowledge management
75. Quality management is driven by a focus ________.