50 terms

Early civilizations of Mesoamerica

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How many years ago the immagration to Mesoamerica started
30,000
What enabled early peoples to adapt to different climates
Cultivating of plants and domesticating of animals
The earliest civilization in Mesoamerica
Olmec
Abundant resources of the Olmec civilization
Rubber, salt, tar, clay, wood
Class system
Rulers, priests, scribes, calendar-makers
skilled artisans, merchants, engineers, sculptors
ball players
hunters and farmers
division of labor
men plowed and planted fields, hunted and fished
women did housekeeping chores
Spirit that played a major role in the Olmec civilization
jaguar
The priests...
filled their teeth with semi-precious stones, wore jaguar skins, red robes, feathers, and headdresses
Altar
There is strong evidence that the Olmecs practiced bloodletting
Most dramatic remains of Olmec civilization
40 ton carved stone heads in the remains of a religious center in La Venta
Olmec may have been the first civilization in the west hemisphere to develop this
Writing
Olmec calendar
Long count calendar
Concept of zero
Mathematic system
bar and dot
Art
Jade
Maize
Ceramics
Clamshells
Ceramic babies motir
Jaguars, serpents, and monkeys
Mirrors
Sports
Ball courts
Mont Alban
First real urban center in Mesoamerica
population of 25,000 at peak
paved stones, towering pyramids, temples, observatory, palaces made out of stone
Cenotes
A supply of underground water
Chultuns
underground reservoirs built to store rainwater in safe places
The method that Mayans used for farming
Slash and burn
Main food sources
babanas, cacao, beans, sqash, maize, etc.
The maya civilization was...
hierarchial
what the mayans did to infants
Molded the heads to look like maize
decorated the teeth
Mayan government
each maya had thier own whief who attended to government matters and collected taxes
Roles of priests
developed calendars, developed math
Stelas
carved designs on stone
Pok-a-tok
sacred ball game of the Maya
Possible reasons for decline of the Maya
drought
political conflicts
Tenochtitlan
the capital city of Aztecs in AD 1325
Social hierarchy
Theocracy led by diving king and priests
Military: many brutal wars for conquests
Chinampas
floating gardens on which Aztecs would farm
tied to ground with willow trees
trade
very important to the Aztecs (chocolate was also important)
Language
Nahuati
Coices: pictorial books that recorded Aztec life and culture
Did they sacrifice?
yes, very important
Astronomy
Many temples based on astronomy for worship
Were they polytheistic or monotheistic (Aztecs)
Polytheistic
Education
Both girls and boys, hands of parents, supervised by calpuli
two types of school, calmecac and telpochcalli for two different classes
Conquistadors
Given the right by Spain to hunt for treasure, kept 1/5 of the treasure found
Hernando Cortez
Spanish conquistador who landed in Mexico and took over the Aztecs
Montezuma
Azted emperor whose awaiting a white god and thought Cortez was him
Quetzalcoatl
white skinned god who once ruled over the Aztecs
Columbian exchange
gifts exchanged by the Old and New World
Moche
People who built a civilization along the coast of Peru
Developed methods for fertilizing the soil and used canals to irrigate the land
Adobe
A mixture of clay and plant fibers used for artwork
Sapa Inca
A skilled warrior or emperor
Had absolute power
Claimed to be divine
Laid claim over all the land and people
Kept people fed and public works staffed using a labor tax
Cuzco
Capital of Incas under Sapa Inca
Inca
A strong empire who maintained a large and powerful civilization in the time of the Andean Civilizations
Quipu
A collection of colored strings that were knotted in different ways to represent various numbers
Ayllu
Leader of an Inca village
Nazca
People along the southern coast of Peru who etched geoglyphs
Geoglyphs
straight lines over the earth's surface depicting animals which have some sort of spiritual meaning
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