59 terms

Definitions - Level 12

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Cadenza
An improvised section in a composition that allows the performer artistic creativity
Chromatic Scale
A twelve-none scale built using only half steps
Close Harmony
Four-part harmony with less than an octave between the soprano and tenor
Diatonic Scale
A stepwise scale with seven different tones conforming to a pattern of whole and half steps
Dominant Seventh Chord
A seventh chord built on the dominant (V) written as V7 in root position
Homophonic Music
A melody line supported by a chordal accompaniment
Monophonic Music
A single line of melody
Open Harmony
Four-part harmony with more than an octave between the soprano and tenor
Overture
An orchestral composition used to introduce a large dramatic work
Plagal Cadence
A cadence which progresses from the subdominant triad (IV or iv) to the tonic triad (I or i)
Polyphonic Music
Music in which two or more melodies are heard at the same time
Rondo Form
A composition in which the first theme returns repeatedly: A-B-A-C-A, etc.
Senza
Without
Seventh Chord
A four-tone chord, built by adding another third on top of a triad
Tritone
The interval of an augmented 4th or diminished 5th, so-called because it spans three whole steps
Troppo
Too much
Ballet
A theatrical dance
Church Modes
Seven diatonic scales, each using a different arrangement of whole and half steps
Counterpoint
The use of two or more melodic lines
Duet
A piece written for two performers
Invention
A short piece with two-voice or three-voice contrapuntal texture
Opera
A theatrical drama that is set to music and sung
Oratorio
A sacred theatrical drama that is sung, but performed without acting, costumes, or scenery
Presto
A very fast or rapid tempo
Trio
A piece written for three performers
Vivo
A lively, spirited, quick tempo
Alberti Bass
A bass line made up of broken chords
Atonal Music
Music that lacks a sense of key
Bitonal Music
Music that uses two tonalities simultaneously
Compound Interval
An interval that is greater than an octave
Deceptive Cadence
A cadence that moves from V-VI or V-vi.
Figured Bass
A bass line under which numbers tell what intervals should be played over the bass notes
Fugue
An imitative contrapuntal composition alternating exposition and episodic portions
Half Diminished Seventh Chord
A seventh chord that has a minor 3rd from the root to the third and third to the fifth of the chord, and has a major third from the fifth to the seventh
Simple Interval
An interval that is no greater than an octave
Sonata-Allegro Form
A form consisting of three main sections: Exposition, Development, and Recapitulation frequently found in the first movement of a classical sonata or symphony
Tonal Music
Music that has a sense of key
Ad Libitum
Freedom to improvise or vary the tempo
Alto
In four-part harmony, the second highest voice
Aria
A composition for solo voice from an opera or oratorio, and must be accompanied
Augmented Interval
A perfect or major interval that has been increased by a half step
Augmented Triad
A triad built with two major thirds
Bass
In four-part harmony, the lowest voice
Diminished Interval
A perfect or minor interval that has been decreased by a half step
Half Cadence
Any cadence which ends on the dominant (V) triad
Harmonic Interval
Two tones played or sung at the same time
Imperfect Authentic Cadence
Any authentic cadence (V-I) which does not have the root in the bass on both chords and the soprano voice of the I chord is not tonic
Melodic Interval
The distance between two tones played or sung in succession
Melody
An organized group of tones, heard one at a time, which is divided into phrases; a tune
Names of Scale Degrees
Tonic (1),
Supertonic (2),
Mediant (3),
Subdominant (4),
Dominant (5),
Submediant (6),
Leading Tone/Subtonic (7)
Parallel Keys
Major and minor keys that have the same tonic (keynote)
Perfect Authentic Cadence
An authentic cadence (V-I) which has the root of both chords in the bass and the tonic in the soprano of the I chord
Phrase
Part of a melody which pauses or ends with a cadence
Prelude
A smaller composition that is usually followed by a larger composition, in the same key
Relative Keys
Major and minor keys that share the same key signature
Semplice
To play simply; without ornament
Soprano
In four-part harmony, the highest voice
Tenor
In four-part harmony, the third highest voice
Whole Tone Scale
A six-tone scale built only of whole steps