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The "Bobo" Doll

experiment which demonstrated that agression can and is modeled by children, who only saw someone acting aggressively towards a doll on a recording.


an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior. (ex: BF Skinner on Cognition)

Ivan Pavlov

Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (ex: Rings a bell!)

Classical Conditioning

conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex (ex: Pavlov's dogs)

Unconditioned Stimulus

something that naturally evokes the UCR (ex: food)

Unconditioned Response

something that naturally is a response to the UCS (ex: salivation)

Neutral Stimulus

a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response. Becomes the CS (ex: bell)

Conditioned Stimulus

triggers the CR after association with the UCR. Was once the NS. (ex: bell)

Conditioned Response (CR)

elicited by the CS. Was once the UCR. (ex: salivation)


Initial stage of CC. The NS becomes a CS, and is able to elicit the UCR/CR sans the UCS. (ex: anticipation of "can"


"final" stage of CC, when a CR is no longer able to elicit the CR. (ex: "can" once it was no longer associated with /Squirt/)

Spontaneous Recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response (ex: reappr of "can" /Squirt/ anticip)


transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus (ex: Little Albert and Rabbits)


earned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal a UCS (ex: "pan" after a while)

John Watson

father of behaviorism; performed the Little Albert study

Rosalie Rayner

worked with Watson on the Little Albert study

"Little Albert"

child who was experimented on by Watson, sad story really. Started with a fear of rats, but generalized it to all furry things.

B.F. Skinner

pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. (ex: skinner boxes, Big Forehead)

Operant Conditioning

contrasted with CC, something happens to strengthen or extinguish a behavior (ex: clapping block day)


an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior (ex: clapping block day)

Skinner Box (operant chamber)

Box in which BF Skinner shaped rats/mice to perform a complex task. (video)


A reward that increases behavior in OC (ex: cheese!)

Conditioned reinforcement

operant procedure of reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

Primary reinforcers

Things that are innately satisfying (ex: food, sex, absence of pain)

Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers

Things that are not innately satisfying, but rather have a learned satisfaction. (ex: money, attaboys, grades)

Partial (intermittent) reinforcement

Reinforcement is not always provided. More resistant to extinguishment. (ex: slots)

Continuous reinforcement

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

Fixed-ratio schedules

Reinforcement occurs after X occurrences (ex: piecework)

Variable-ratio schedules

RI occurs after a undetermined number of occurrences (ex: slots)

Fixed-interval schedules

Reinforcement occurs after X time (ex: paychecks)

Variable-interval schedules

Reinforcement occurs after a undetermined amount of time time (ex: paychecks)


used to extinguish the behavior that it follows (ex: time outs)

Positive punishment

punishment that adds something (ex: now you have to take out the trash)

Negative punishment

punishment that adds something (ex: no TV)

Biological predispositions

Things that a species does naturally, and is easier to condition. (ex: barking vs "stand up!" to a dog)

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