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Math Vocabulary (4th Grade Common Core Terms)
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Terms in this set (143)
Acute Angle
An angle with a measure of less than 90°.
Add
To combine, put together two or more quantities.
Addend
Any number being added to another.
Additive Comparison
Problems that ask how much more (or less) one amount is than another.
Algorithm
A step-by-step method for comparing.
Angle
Two rays that share an endpoint.
Angle Measure (Degree)
The measure of the size of an angle. It tells how far one side is turned from the other side.
A one degree angle turns through 1/360 of a full circle.
Arc
Part of a circle between any two of its points.
Area
The measure, in square units, of the inside of a plane figure.
Area Model
A model of multiplication that shows each place value product.
Array
An arrangement of objects in equal rows.
Associative Property of Multiplication
Changing the groupings of three or more factors does not change the product.
Associative Property of Addition
Changing the groupings of three or more addends does not change the sum.
Attribute
A characteristic of an object, such as color, shape, size, etc.
Benchmark Fractions
Fractions that are commonly used for estimation.
Capacity
Capacity refers to the amount of liquid a container can hold.
Centimeter (cm)
A metric unit of length equal to 0.01 of a meter.
Circle
A plane figure with all points the same distance from a fixed point called a center.
Classify
To sort into categories or to arrange into groups by attributes.
Commutative Property of Addition
Changing the order of the addends does not change the sum.
Commutative Property of Multiplication
Changing the order of the factors does not change the product.
Common Denominator
For two or more fractions, a common denominator is a common multiple of the denominators.
Compare
To decide if one number is greater than, less than, or equal to.
Comparison Bars (Tape Diagrams)
Used to represent larger and smaller amounts in a comparison situation. Can be used to represent all four operations. Different lengths of bars are drawn to represent each number.
Compose
To put together components or basic elements.
Composite Number
A number greater than 0 that has more than two different factors.
Congruent
Having exactly the same size AND shape.
Cup (c)
A customary unit of capacity.
1 cup = 8 fluid ounces.
Customary System
A system of measurement used in the United States. The system includes units for measuring length, capacity, and weight.
Data
A collection of information gathered for a purpose. Data may be in the form of either word or numbers.
Decimal
A number with one or more digits to the right of a decimal point.
Decimal Fraction
A fractional number with a denominator of 10 or a power of 10. Usually written with a decimal point.
Decimal Notation
A number containing a decimal point.
Decimal Point
A dot (.) separating the whole number from the fraction in decimal notation.
Decompose
To separate into components or basic elements.
Degree (Angle measure)
A unit for measuring angles. Based on dividing one complete circle into 360 equal parts.
Denominator
The quantity below the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are in the whole.
Difference
The amount that remains after one quantity is subtracted from another.
Digits
Any one of the symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
Distributive Property
When one of the factors of a product is a sum, multiplying each addend before adding does not change the product.
Divide
To separate into equal groups and find the number in each group or the number of groups.
Dividend
A number that is divided by another number.
Divisor
The number by which another number is divided.
Endpoint
A point at either end of a line segment, or a point at one end of a ray.
Equal
Having the same value.
3 x 5 = 15
Equation
A mathematical sentence with an equal sign. The amount on one side of the equal sign has the same value as the amount on the other side.
2 + 3 = 5
Equivalent Fraction
Fractions that have the same value.
Estimate
To find a number close to an exact amount; an estimate tells about how much or about how many.
Evaluate
To find the value of a mathematical expression.
Expanded Form
A way to write numbers that shows the place value of each digit.
Expression
A mathematical phrase without an equal sign,
Fact Family
A group of related facts that use the same numbers. Also called related facts.
Factor
The whole numbers that are multiplied to get a product.
Factor Pairs
A set of two whole numbers when multiplied, will result in a given product.
Foot (ft)
A customary unit of length.
1 foot = 12 inches
Formula
A rule that is written as an equation.
To find the area of any rectangle, multiply its length by its width. This rule can be written as an equation: A = l x w.
Fraction
A way to describe a part of a whole or a part of a group by using equal parts.
Function Tables
A table that lists pairs of numbers that follow a rule.
Gallon (gal)
A customary unit of capacity.
1 gallon = 4 quarts
Gram (g)
The standard unit of mass in the metric system.
1,000 grams = 1 kilogram
Greater Than ( > )
Greater than is used to compare two numbers when the first number is larger than the second number.
Hour (hr)
A unit of time.
1 hour = 60 minutes
24 hours = 1 day
Hundredth
One of the equal parts when a whole is divided into 100 equal parts.
Hundredths
In the decimal numeration system, hundredths is the name of the next place to the right of the tenths.
Identity Property of Addition
If you add zero to any number, the sum is the same as that number.
Identity Property of Multiplication
If you multiply a number by one, the product is the same as that number.
Improper Fraction
A term used for a fraction whose numerator is greater than or equal to its denominator.
Inch (in)
A customary unit of length.
12 inches = 1 foot
Intersecting Lines
Lines that cross at a point.
Inverse Operations
Operations that undo each other.
Kilogram (kg)
A metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 grams.
Kilometer (km)
A metric unit of length equal to 1,000 meters.
Length
How long something is. The distance from one point to another. Length is measure in units such as inches, feet, centimeters, etc.
Less Than ( < )
Less than is used to compare two numbers when the first number is smaller than the second number.
Like Denominators
Denominators in two or more fractions that are the same.
Line
A set of connected points continuing without end in both directions.
Line Plot
A diagram showing frequency of data on a number line.
Line Segment
A part of a line with two endpoints.
Line of Symmetry
A line that divided a figure into congruent halves that are mirror images of each other.
Line Symmetric Figures
Figures that can be folded in half and its two parts match exactly.
Liter (L)
The basic unit of capacity in the metric system.
1 L = 1,000 milliliters
Lowest Terms
When a fraction is expressed with the fewest possible pieces, it is in lowest terms. (Also called simplest form.)
Mass
The amount of matter in an object. Usually measured by comparing with an object of known mass. While gravity influences weight, it does not affect mass.
Meter (m)
A standard unit of length in the metric system.
Metric System
A system of measurement based on tens. The basic unit of capacity is the liter. The basic unit of length is the meter. The basic unit of mass is the gram.
Mile (mi)
A customary unit of length.
1 mile = 5,280 feet
Milliliter (mL)
A metric unit of capacity.
1,000 milliliters = 1 liter
Millimeter (mm)
A metric unit of length.
1,000 millimeters = 1 meter
Minute (min)
One sixtieth of an hour or 60 seconds.
Mixed Number
A number that has a whole number (not 0) and a fraction.
Multiple
A product of a given whole number and any other whole number.
Multiply / Multiplication
The operation of repeated addition of the same number.
Number Line
A diagram that represents numbers as points on a line.
Numerator
The number written above the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are described in he fraction.
Obtuse Angle
An angle with a measure greater than 90° but less than 180°.
Order of Operations
A set of rules that tells the order in which to compute.
Ounce (oz)
A customary unit of weight equal to one-sixteenth of a pound.
16 ounces = 1 pound
Parallel Lines
Lines that are always the same distance apart. They do not intersect.
Parenthesis
Used in mathematics as grouping symbols for operations. When simplifying an expression, the operations within the parenthesis are performed first.
Pattern
A repeating or growing sequence or design. An ordered set of numbers or shapes arranged according to a rule.
Perimeter
The distance around the outside of figure.
Period
In a large number, periods are groups of three digits separated by commas or by spaces.
Perpendicular Lines
Two intersecting lines that form right angles.
Pint (pt)
A customary unit of capacity.
1 pint = 2 cups
Place Value
The value of the digit in a number.
Plane Figure
A two-dimensional figure.
Pound (lb)
A customary unit of weight.
1 pound = 16 ounces
Point
The exact location in space represent by a dot.
*A
Prime Number
A whole number greater than 0 that has exactly two different factors, 1 and itself.
Product
The answer to a multiplication problem
Protractor
A tool used to measure and draw angles.
Quart (qt)
A customary unit of capacity.
1 quart = 2 pints
1 quart = 4 cups
Quotient
The answer to a division problem.
Range
The difference between the greatest numbers and the least number in a set of data.
Ray
A part of a line that has one endpoint and goes on forever in one direction.
Reasonableness
An answer that is based on good number sense.
What is the product of 57 and 34?
A. 1,938
B. 3,208
C. 5,738
D. 8,698
Use estimation to eliminate unreasonable choices, 60 x 30 = 1,800. B, C, and D are not close to 1,800. The answer must be A.
Related Facts
Related addition and subtraction facts or related multiplication and division facts. Also called a fact family.
Remainder
The amount left over when one number is divided by another.
Right Angle
An angle that measure exactly 90°.
Right Triangle
A triangle that has one 90° angle.
Round Whole Numbers
To find the nearest ten, hundred, thousand (and so on.)
Second (sec)
One sixtieth of a minute. There are 60 seconds in a minute.
Sequence
A set of numbers arranged in a special order or pattern.
Simplest Form
When a fraction is expressed with the fewest possible pieces, it is in simplest form. (Also called lowest terms.)
Simplify
To express a fraction in simplest form.
Square Unit
A unit, such as square centimeters or square inches, used to measure area.
Standard Form
A common or usual way of writing a number using digits.
Subtract
An operation that gives the difference two numbers. Subtraction can be used to compare two numbers, or to find out how much is left after some is taken away.
Sum
The answer to an addition problem.
Tenth
One of the equal parts when a whole is divided into 10 equal parts.
Tenths
In the decimal numeration system, tenths is the name of the place immediately to the right of the decimal point..
Time Interval
A duration of a segment of time.
Two Dimensional
Having length and width. Having area, but not volume. Also called a plane figure.
Unit Fractions
A fraction that has 1 as its numerator.
Unlike Denominators
Denominators that are not equal.
Variable
A letter or symbol that represents a number.
Vertex
The point at which two lines segments, lines, or rays meet to form an angle.
Volume
The number of cubic units it takes to fill a figure.
Weight
The measure of how heavy something is.
Whole Number
Whole numbers are zero and the counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and so on. If a number has a negative sign, a decimal point, or a part that's a fraction, it is NOT a whole number.
Word Form
A way of using words to write a number.
Yard (yd)
A customary unit of length.
1 yard = 3 feet
1 yard = 36 inches
Zero Property of Multiplication
The product of any number and zero is zero.
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