1. ______________ refers to the process by which a person's efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal.
3. We want employees to _______________ putting forth an effort to achieve organizational goals.
a. persist in
4. The drive to find food, drink, and sexual satisfaction is based on what level of need?
5. An individual who wants to buy a home in an expensive neighborhood with a low crime rate is satisfying which need?
6. Within Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the need for belonging is associated with ______________.
c. social needs
7. The need for such factors as status, recognition, attention, self-respect, autonomy, and achievement are examples of which of the following needs according to Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
8. Growth, achieving one's potential, self-fulfillment, and the drive to become what one is capable of becoming are characteristics of which need according to Maslow's hierarchy?
9. Maslow argued that once a need is substantially satisfied, _______________.
a. the next need becomes dominant
11. ___________ assumes that employees have little ambition, dislike work, and avoid responsibility.
b. Theory X
12. Theory Y assumes that people inherently _____________.
c. want to work and can exercise self-direction
13. Theory X assumed that _______________ needs dominated individuals, and Theory Y assumed that _______________ needs dominated.
a. lower-order; higher-order
15. According to Herzberg, when ___________ are adequate, people won't be dissatisfied, but they also will not be satisfied.
d. hygiene factors
16. According to Herzberg, in order to provide employees with job satisfaction, managers should concentrate on _____________.
c. motivator factors (moderate)
17. According to McClelland, the need to make others behave in a way they wouldn't have behaved otherwise is which of the following work motives?
b. need for power
18. Which of the following suggests that there is a desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships at work?
d. need for affiliation
19. An individual who would enjoy taking on the challenge of personally redesigning the workflow of a manufacturing line to improve employee productivity would probably be rated high on which of the following?
c. need for achievement
21. Difficult goals, when accepted, result in _______________.
b. higher performance than easy goals
22. People will do better when they get ______________ because it helps identify discrepancies between what they have done and what they want to do.
23. The higher your ______________, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task.
25. The concept that behavior is a function of consequences is known as ______________.
a. reinforcement theory
26. Reinforcement theorists believe that behavior results from _______________.
a. external consequences
27. A ______________ is any consequence immediately following a response that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
28. According to reinforcement theory, rewards are effective if they ___________ a desired behavior.
29. Behavior that is not rewarded, or is punished, is _______________.
d. less likely to be repeated
31. The number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which those tasks are repeated is ____________.
32. One of the first attempts to design jobs horizontally expanded jobs and is known as job _____________.
33. Job ______________ is vertical expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluating responsibilities.
34. The research evidence on the use of job enrichment programs could be classified as ____________.
35. The job characteristics model (JCM) identifies ______________ as the degree to which a job has substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.
a. task significance
36. ______________ is the degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.
37. ______________ is the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in an individual's obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
38. The job characteristics model provides guidance to managers concerning _______________.
a. job design
39. A theory that suggests that employees compare their inputs and outcomes from a job to the ratio of input to outcomes of relevant others is known as ______________.
d. equity theory
41. In general, the research support for equity theory could be described as ______________.
42. Which expectancy theory linkage explains the belief that having a high grade point average is critical in obtaining a good job?
43. The importance that an individual places on a potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job is known as _____________.
a. valence or attractiveness of reward
45. The view that a high achievement need acts as an internal motivator presupposes a willingness to accept a moderate degree of risk and a concern with performance, two cultural characteristics that are relatively absent in _______________.
46. Consistent with a legacy of communism and centrally planned economies, employees exhibit _______________.
d. a greater entitlement attitude
47. What seems important to almost all workers, regardless of their national culture?
c. the desire for interesting work
48. In a study comparing job-preference outcomes among graduate students in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Singapore, what rated the highest among them all?
49. To maximize motivation among today's diverse workforce, managers need to think in terms of ________________.
51. ______________ work hours are where employees work a certain number of hours per week, but are free, within limits, to vary the hours of work.
52. What type of job scheduling option would allow two different employees to share one 40-hour-a-week systems analyst position?
b. job sharing
53. The linking by computer and modem of workers at home with coworkers and management at an office is termed ____________.
55. Successful motivation of professions requires that managers recognize that the loyalty of professionals is usually toward their _____________.
56. All of the following are mentioned as suggestions to motivate professionals except _______________.
b. using money and promotions
58. When temps work alongside permanent employees who earn more and get benefits for doing the same job, _______________.
c. the performance of temps is likely to suffer
59. How would a manager motivate low-skilled, minimum-wage employees?
b. use employee recognition programs
61. ______________ is a motivational approach in which an organization's financial statements are opened to and shared with all employees.
a. Open-book management
62. Attempts to show the financial condition of the firm to employees to get them to think like owners of the firm are known as ______________.
d. open-book management
63. _______________ consists of personal attention and expressing interest, approval, and appreciation for a job well done.
c. An employee recognition program
64. Consistent with _______________, rewarding a behavior using employee recognition programs immediately following behavior is likely to encourage its repetition.
b. reinforcement theory
65. What is an example of an employee recognition program?
a. handwritten notes acknowledging something positive that the employee has done
66. Compensation plans that pay employees based on the basis of their contribution to the effectiveness of the organization are referred to as _____________.
a. pay-for-performance programs
67. Piece-rate pay plans, wage incentive plans, profit sharing, and lump-sum bonuses are examples of ______________ programs.
68. _______________ are financial instruments that give employees the right to purchase shares of stock at a set price.
a. Stock options
69. The literature on _______________ suggests that managers should ensure that employees have hard, specific goals and feedback on how well they are doing in achieving those goals.
a. goal-setting theory
71. Which of the following is not a suggestion for motivating employees?
b. make goals very difficult to achieve c. match people to jobs
72. Following the ideas of ____________, managers should check the system to see that employees perceive the rewards as being equal to the inputs.
c. using recognition
70. Managers must be sure that employees feel confident that increased efforts _______________.
b. can lead to achieving performance goals