APWH Period 4: Global Interactions (1450-1750)

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Renaissance
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture.
humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
Ming
Dynasty known for its rebirth of Chinese culture, highly centralized government, and trading power.
Zheng He
Ming admiral who famously explored much of the Indian Ocean.
caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese leader who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa in the fifteenth century.
trading post empire
When a European colonial government built trading outposts instead of attempting to physically conquer other regions.
Christopher Columbus
Responsible for opening the Americas to European exploration/expansion.
Columbian Exchange
Exchange of goods, ideas, diseases, and people between the Americas, Africa, and Europe. Each region was significantly impacted as a result of trade and contact.
plantation agriculture
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop.
cash crops
Crops raised on a large scale to be sold for profit.
pieces of eight
Silver coins minted by the government of Spain. Because a de facto world currency in the post-Columbian world.
mercantilism
The idea that there is only a set amount of wealth in the world. Each nation gets a larger share by building colonies.
Sir Francis Drake
English privateer sent by Queen Elizabeth to raid Spanish shipping.
1492
The year of Columbus's first voyage. Also the year the Spanish Reconquista was completed.
Protestant Reformation
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
1517
The year Martin Luther produced the 95 Theses, triggering the Reformation.
literacy
The ability to read and write at a functional level.
Reconquista
Ferdinand and Isabella's "reconquering" of the Spain from the Jews and the Moors.
Spanish Inquisition
The search for those who would argue against the Catholic Church during the Reformation. Pushed by the government of Spain.
Thirty Years' War
This war began over religious arguments in Bohemia, but ended as a political struggle between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
1648
The year the 30 Years War ended.
joint-stock companies
Companies that were owned by a group of stockholders in order to minimize risk. These were very effective in the European colonization of the New World.
entrepreneur
A person who builds a business, usually at great risk or effort.
tulip craze
An economic bubble in the Dutch Republic that led to great wealth for some and great loss for others.
Absolute Monarchy
When a ruler has complete power, supposedly to protect the rights of the weak.
Versailles
The palace of King Louis XIV, which he used to control his nobles.
indentured servitude
When someone sells themselves into a kind of temporarily slavery, often in exchange for passage to the New World.
mestizo
A person of mixed native/European blood.
mulatto
A person of mixed African/European blood.
Nzinga
Queen in sub-Saharan Africa who spent almost 40 years battling Portuguese slave traders.
Triangular Trade
Trading system between Europe, Africa, and the New World involving firearms, slaves, and raw materials.
Middle Passage
The part of the Triangular Trading system that shipped people from Africa to the New World to be sold as slaves.
maroon colonies
Colonies formed by runaway slaves. They would sometimes raid the plantations of contemporary slave owners.
Vodun
Syncretic mixture of traditional African religion and Christianity; practiced by the slaves (and former slaves) of the Caribbean.
nativism
Favoring established residents over immigrants, often accompanied by overt or covert hostility towards immigrants.
Forbidden City
A walled section of Beijing that encloses the palace. Visitation was limited. Ming & Qing emperors generally sequestered themselves within its walls.
Qing Dynasty
China's last dynasty, formed when Manchu invaders came into China in the seventeenth century.
Manchu
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644.
Tokugawa
Japanese shogunate during the Edo Period. Known for their attempts as preserving their power by cultural manipulation.
infanticide
Killing an infant, often as a form of population control.
Floating Worlds
Urban cultural center in Japan, particularly in the city of Edo.
Ottoman Empire
Centered in Istanbul, the Turkish state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, ultimately falling after World War I.
devshirme
'Selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries or slaves to the Sultan.
Janissaries
Ottoman infantry made up of the children of conquered Christians.
Safavid Empire
Iranian kingdom known for their battles with the Ottoman Empire and their reluctance to use firearms.
Mughal
Muslim state that ruled much of northern India from the 1500s into the 19th century.
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