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30 terms

Conceptual Physics Chapter 11-14

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atom
(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
Brownian Motion
the random motion of small particles suspended in a gas or liquid
atomic nucleus
An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons.
electron
Negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
proton
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
neutron
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass unit
unit of mass for expressing masses of atoms or molecules
isotopes
Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Periodic table
A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.
compound
(chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
molecule
(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
chemical reaction
(chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
mixture
(chemistry) a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
density
mass/volume
elasticity
the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed
Hooke's Law
states that the force acting on a spring is directly proportional to the amount that the spring is stretched. F=-kx
scaling
a change in the size of an image or element in both X-Y directions
pressure
the force pushing on a surface divided by the area of that surface. P = F/A
buoyant force
upward force exerted on an object immersed in a fluid
Archimedes Principle
the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
Principle of flotation
A floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight
Pascal's Principle
When force is applied to a confined fluid, the change in pressure, is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid
surface tension
The force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface
capillarity
the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of a liquid in small tubes
atmospheric pressure
the pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere
barometer
An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
Boyle's Law
p1v1=p2v2
Bernoulli's Principle
as the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases
Plasma
(physical chemistry) a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors