42 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Ch 7

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The Cell Theory
1. All living things are made up of cells
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
3.New cells are produced from existing cells.
How do microscopes work
Use lenses to magnify the image of an object by focusing light or electrons
Prokaryotic Cells
Do not separate genetic material in a nucleus
Eukaryotic Cells
Nucleus separates genetic material from the rest of the cell
Cell
Basic unit of life
Cell membrane
A thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Nucleus
A large membrane enclosed structure that contains genetic material in the form of DNA and controls many of the cell's activities
Cytoplasm
The portion of the cell outside the nucleus.
Organelles
"little organs"
Vacuole
Large saclike, membrane-enclosed structures that store materials like salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
Lysosome
S: Small organelles filled with enzymes.
F: Break down lipids, carbs, and proteins to be used by rest of cell.
Break down organelles which aren't useful anymore.
Cytoskeleton
S: Network of protein filaments
F: Helps cell maintain shape and is involved in movement
Microfilaments
S: Threadlike structures made up of actin protein. Extensive network.
F: Help cells move, support cell. Responsible for cytoplasmic movements.
Microtubules
S:Hollow structures made up of proteins called tubulins.
F: Maintain cell shape, help separate chromosomes in cell division
Centrioles
S: Organelles in animal cells formed from tubulins.
F: Help organize cell division
Ribosome
S: Small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm.
F: Produce protein by following instructions from DNA
Endoplasmic Reticulum
S: Internal membrane system
F: Assembles lipids and proteins
Rough ER
S: Ribosomes found on surface
F: involved in synthesis of Proteins, chemically modify newly made proteins
Smooth ER
S: No ribosomes found on surface
F: Contains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks
Golgi Apparatus
S: Flattened membranes
F: Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and materials for storage in cell or release from outside of the cell.
Chloroplast
S: Membrane coated, large stacks of other membranes including chlorophyll
F: Convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in food
Mitochondrion
S: Two membranes
F: convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
Cell Wall
S: Porous barriers that surround the cell membrane
F: Shapes, supports, and protects the cell
Phospholipid Bilayer
Flexible, double layered sheet that makes up the cell membrane and forms a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
Selectively Permeable
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot
Active transport
Requires cell energy
Passive transport
Movement of materials across the membrane without cellular energy
Diffusion
Random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration due to their kinetic energy
Facilitated Diffusion
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
Aquaporin
A transport protein that facilitates the diffusion of water
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Isotonic
(used of solutions) having the same or equal osmotic pressure
Hypertonic
A solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than another.
Hypotonic
Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
Osmotic Pressure
Pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane
How to maintain homeostasis
1. Grow
2. Respond to the environment
3.Transform energy
4. Reproduce
Homeostasis
Relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
Tissue
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
Organ
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body.
Organ System
Group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Receptor
a specific protein whose shape fits that of a specific molecular messenger
Levels of Organization (Living Things)
1. cells (Smallest)
2. tissue
3. organs
4. organ systems
5. organisms (Largest)

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