63 terms

Miller and Levine Biology Ch 22

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alternation of generations
the shift between haploid and diploid
sporophyte
The multicellular diploid (2N) phase, also known as spore producing plant.
gametophyte
The multicellular haploid (N) phase, also known as gamete producing plant.
diploid zygote
produced during fertilization when an egg and a sperm fuse with each other. This then develops into a new sporophyte, and the plant life cycle begins again.
gametes
sperm and egg cells
bryophyte
A nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants. Depends on water for reproduction. They are small because they lack vascular tissue. (moss, liverwort, hornwort)
vascular tissue
Specialized tissue that contains tubes hardened with a substance called lingin. Carries water more efficiently than any tissue found in bryophytes. With the evolution of this tissue, plants were able to grow high above the ground.
archegonium
Where eggs are produced in a gametophyte
antheridium
Where sperm are produced in a gametophyte
sporangium
The spore capsule where haploid spores are produced by meiosis. When the capsule ripens, it opens, and haploid spores are scattered to the wind to start the cycle again.
tracheophytes
Also known as vascular plants. Called this after a specialized type of cell, called a tracheid, they contain.
tracheids
hollow tubelike cells with thick walls strengthened by lingin. These were one of the great evolutionary innovations of the plant kingdom. Connected to end and end like a series of tin cans. Openings between each other are known as pits and they allow water to move through a plant more efficiently than by diffusion alone.
xylem
A tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of the plant. Where tracheids are found.Make it possible for vascular plants to move fluids their bodies against the force of gravity. Made of vascular tisssue
phloem
The second transport system that vascular plants have. Transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis. The main cells of these are long and specialized to move fluids throughout the plant body. Make it possible for vascular plants to move fluids their bodies against the force of gravity.
lingin
A molecule that gives wood it's strength and resists water
roots
anchor the plant to the ground, hold soil in place and prevent erosion, absorb water.
stem
provides support , water and nutrients transports, prevents diseases and predators, makes leaves.
leaves
photosynthetic organs; more surface area= more photosynthesis.
seed
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gymnosperm
Cone-bearing seed plants that lack flowers and thus have naked seeds without fruits
angiosperm
A flowering plant which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
meristematic tissue
the only plant tissue that produces new cells by mitosis
vessel elements
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sieve tubes and companion cells
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parenchyma
type of ground-tissue cell with the thinnest and most flexible cell walls
collenchyma
type of ground tissue cell with a strong, flexible cell wall; helps support larger plants
sclerenchyma
type of ground-tissue cell with an extremely thick, rigid cell wall that makes ground tissue tough and strong
root cap
A preotective layer of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem
taproot
a longer thick main root found mainly in dicots
fibrous root
part of a root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest
endodermis ( in a root)
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cortex
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Casparian strip
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root hairs
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stem nodes
where leaves are attached to the stem
cork cambium
A cylinder of meristematic tissue in plants that produces cork cells to replace the epidermis during secondary growth. Becomes bark in trees.
vascular cambium
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heartwood
Older xylem near the center of a woody stem that no longer conducts water
sapwood
Layer of functioning Xylem right outside Heartwood. Where water transport occurs.
bark
Dead, protective wood that covers the outside of a tree trunk.
capillary action
the tendency of water to rise in a thin tube
adhesion
An attraction between molecules of different substances
transpirational pull
The movement of water out of the leaf "pulls" water upward through the vascular system of all the way from the roots
transpiration
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant (plant sweat).
cohesion
Attraction between molecules of the same substance
sink cells
Where the sugars are stored
source cells
nutrient rich source of sugars.
blades
main photosynthetic region
petioles
The stalk of a leaf, which joins the blade to a node of the stem.
cuticle
A waxy covering on the surface of leaves to prevent water loss.
stomata
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows Carbon diox, oxygen, and water exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant. Controlled by guard cells
guard cells
Modified cells on the leaf epidermis that regulate gas and water exchange by opening and closing stoma. Located on each side of stomata. If there is alot of water pressure, they open the stoma to transpire. If there is not alot of water pressure, they will close the stoma to avoid losing too much water.
palisade mesophyll
Layer of tall, column shaped mesophyll cells just under the upper epidermis of a leaf. Made of specialized ground tissue. Absorb light.
spongy mesophyll
Loose tissue beneath the palisade layer of a leaf; has many air spaces between its cells so water can find its way to the stomata. Made of specialized ground tissue. Connects to the outside of the leaf through the stomata.
photosynthesis
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and oxygen
homeostasis
Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
chloroplasts
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
chlorophyll
A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria. Necessary for photosynthesis.
epidermis
...
bundle sheath
contains the xylem and phloem
leaf cross section
stem cross section
respiration
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