Chapter 9 Quizlet
Terms in this set (22)
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient. Requires energy from the cell
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
adenosine diphosphate; molecule that ATP becomes when it gives up one of its three phosphate groups
adenosine monophosphate; , when only one phosphate bonds. Small amount of energy required.
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
phase of photosynthesis where light energy is converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP; results in the splitting of water and the release of oxygen.
phase of photosynthesis where energy from light-dependent reactions is used to produce glucose and additional ATP molecules.
molecules that absorb specific wavelengths of sunlight
light-absorbing pigment in plants and some protists that is required for photosynthesis; absorbs most wavelengths of light except for green
electron transport chain
series of proteins embedded in a membrane along which energized electrons are transported; as electrons are passed from molecule to molecule, energy is released
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an electron carrier molecule; when carrying excited electrons it becomes NADPH
reaction taking place in the thylakoid membranes of a chloroplast during light-dependent reactions where two molecules of water are split to form oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electrons
cell organelle that captures light energy and produces food to store for later use
series of reactions during the light-independent phase of photosynthesis in which simple sugars are formed from carbon dioxide using ATP and hydrogen from the light-dependent reactions
cell organelles that transform energy from the cell
chemical process where mitochondria break down food molecules to produce ATP; the three stages of cellular respiration are glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport cycle.
Chemical reactions that do not require the presence of oxygen
Chemical reactions that require the presence of oxygen
in cellular respiration, a series of anaerobic chemical reactions in the cytoplasm that break down glucose into pyruvic acid; forms a net profit of two ATP molecules
citric acid cycles
in cellular respiration a series of chemical reactions that break down glucose and produce ATP; energizes electron carriers that pass the energized electrons on to the electron transport chain
lactic acid fermentation
series of anaerobic chemical reactions in which pyruvic acid uses NADH to form lactic acid and NAD+, which is then used in glycolysis; supplies energy when oxygen for aerobic respiration is scarce
anaerobic process in which cells convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol; carried out by many bacteria and fungi such as yeasts
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