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The supply of oxygen to and removal of wastes from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.


toxin secreted by animals


Poisonous or harmful substances

decompression sickness

A condition resulting from nitrogen trapped in the body's tissues caused by coming up too quickly from a deep, prolonged dive. A symptom of decompression sickness is "the bends" or deep pain in the muscles and joints.

Air embolism

air bubbles in the blood vessels


The process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid, which result in death, morbidity (illness or other adverse effects), or no morbidity


abnormally high body temperature

local cooling

Cooling or freezing of particular (local) parts of the body

central rewarming

Application of heat to the lateral chest, neck, armpits, and groin of a hypothermic patient.

active rewarming

Application of an external heat source to rewarm the body of a hypothermic patient.

passive rewarming

covering a hypothermic patient and taking other steps to prevent further heat loss and help the body rewarm itself


condition in which body temperature is below normal, usually below 95 F (35 C) and often in the range of 78 to 95 F (26 to 35 C)




the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas


Sending energy in waves into space

Wind Chill

chilling caused by convection of heat from the body in the presence of air currents.


Carrying away heat by currents of air, water or other gases/liqiuds

Water chill

Chilling caused by conduction of heat from the body when the body or clothing is wet.


the transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact

trauma score

a system of evaluating trauma patients according to a numerical rating system to determine the severity of the patients trauma

Multisystem Trauma

one or more injuries that affect more than one body system

Multiple trauma

more than one serious injury

Neurogenic Shock

State of shock; Nerve paralysis; Develops from spinal cord injuries

Manual traction

The process of applying tension to straighten and realign a fractured limb before splinting. Also called tension.


A grating or grinding sensation caused by fractured bone ends or joints rubbing together; also air bubbles under the skin that produce a crackling sound or crinkly feeling.

Compartment syndrome

injury caused when tissues such as blood vessels and nerves are constricted within a space as from swelling or from a tight dressing or cast

Open extremity injury

An extremity injury in which the skin has been broken or torn through from the inside by an injured bone or from the outside by something that has caused a penetrating wound with associated injury to the bone.

Closed extremity injury

An injury to an extremity with no associated opening in the skin.


injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse)


Stretching / Tearing of ligaments


displacement of a bone from its joint

Angulated fracture

fracture in which the broken bone segments are at an angle to each outher

Greenstick fracture

incomplete fracture

Comminuted fracture

Fracture; Bone broken in several places


Any break in a bone

Traction splint

A splint that applies constant pull along the lenght of the lower extremity to help stabilize the fractured bone and to reduce muscle spasm in the limb. Traction splints are used primarily on femoral shaft fractures.


tissue that connects bone to bone


tissue that connects muscle to bone


Tissue; Covers joints of bones; Forms certain body parts


tissues or fibers that cause movement of body parts and organs


places where bones connect: hinge, pivot, gliding, ball and socket


Hard; Flexible structures; Provide support to body; Protects vital organs


limbs of the body, especially hands and feet


an intestine or other internal organ protruding through a wound in the abdomen

Tension pneumothorax

a type of pneumothorax in which air that enters the chest cavity is prevented from escaping


air in the chest cavity

Sucking chest wound

An open chest wound in which air is "sucked" into the chest cavity.

Paradoxical motion

movement of a part of the chest in the opposite direction to the rest of the chest during respiration

Flail chest

fracture of two or more adjacent ribs in two or more places that allows for free movement of the fractured segment.

Occlusive dressing

any dressing that forms an airtight seal

Pressure dressing

a dressing applied tightly to control bleeding

Universal dressing

bulky dressing


a piece of soft material that covers and protects an injured part of the body


Any material (preferably sterile) used to cover a wound that will help control bleeding and help prevent additional contamination.

Rule of palm

a method for estimating the extent of a burn. The palm of the patient's hand, which equals about 1% of the body's surface area, is compared with the patient's burn to estimate its size

Rule of nines

a method of estimating the extent of a burn. For an adult, each of the following surfaces represents 9% of the body surface: the head and neck, each upper extremity, the chest, the abdomen, the upper back, the lower back and buttocks, the front of each lower extremity, and the back of each lower extremity. The remaining 1% is assigned to the genital region. For an infant or child the percentages are modified so that 18% is assigned to the head, 14% to each lower extremity.

Full thickness burn

a burn in which all the layers of the skin are damaged. There are usually areas that are charred black or areas that are dry and white. Also called a third-degree burn.

Partial thickness burn

a burn in which the first layer of skin (epidermis) is burned through and the dermis (second layer) is damaged. Burns of this type cause reddening, blistering, and a mottled appearence. (Also called second-degree burn).

superficial burn

a burn that involves only the epidermis, the outer layer of the skin. It is characterized by reddening of the skin and perhaps some swelling. An example is a sunburn. Also called a first-degree burn.


the surgical removal or traumatic severing of a body part, usually an extremity


Tearing Away


a cut

Puncture wound

An open wound that tears through the skin and destroys underlaying tissues. A penetrating puncture wound can be shallow or deep. A perforating puncture wound has both an entrance and an exit wound.



Open wound

an injury in which the skin is interrupted, exposing the tissue beneath

Crush injury

an injury caused when force is transmitted from the body's exterior to its internal structures. Bones can be broken, muscles, nerves, and tissues damaged, and internal organs ruptured, causing internal bleeding


the collection of blood under the skin as the result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. bruise


a bruise

Closed wound

an internal injury with no open pathway from the outside

Subcutaneous layers

the layers of fat and soft tissues found below the dermis


second layer of skin, holding blood vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles


The outer layer of the skin

Neurogenic shock

Hypo perfusion due to nerve paralysis (sometimes caused by spinal cord injuries) resulting in the dilation of blood vessels that increases the volume of the circulatory system beyond the point where it can be filled

Cardiogenic shock

Shock, or lack of perfusion, brought on not by blood loss, but by inadequate pumping action of the heart. It is often the result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure.


shock resulting from blood or fluid loss

Irrevirsible shock

Body has lost the battle to maintain perfusion to vital organs; Even if it returns the patient may die days later due to organ failure

Decompensated shock

Occurs when the body can no longer compensate for low blood volume or lack of perfusion. Late signs such as decreasing blood pressure become evident.

Compensated shock

When the patient is developing shock but the body is still able to maintain perfusion.


a device, usually an encircling bandage, used to cut off the flow of blood

Hemostatic agents

substances applied as powders, dressings, gauze, or bandages to open wounds to stop bleeding

Pressure dressing

A bulky dressing held in position with a tightly wrapped bandage to apply pressure to help control bleeding.

Capillary Bleeding

bleeding from capillaries, which is characterized by a slow, oozing flow of blood.

Venous bleeding

Bleeding from a vein, which is characterized by dark red or maroon blood and as a steady flow, easy to control.

Arterial bleeding

Bleeding from an artery, which is characterized by bright red blood and as rapid, profuse, and difficult to control.


Excessive bleeding; bursting forth of blood


A condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to enable every body part to perform its function; also called hypoperfusion.


Inability of the body to adequately circulate blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients.

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