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EMT Mod 5

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Perfusion
The supply of oxygen to and removal of wastes from the cells and tissues of the body as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries.
venom
toxin secreted by animals
Toxins
Poisonous or harmful substances
decompression sickness
A condition resulting from nitrogen trapped in the body's tissues caused by coming up too quickly from a deep, prolonged dive. A symptom of decompression sickness is "the bends" or deep pain in the muscles and joints.
Air embolism
air bubbles in the blood vessels
drowning
The process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid, which result in death, morbidity (illness or other adverse effects), or no morbidity
hyperthermia
abnormally high body temperature
local cooling
Cooling or freezing of particular (local) parts of the body
central rewarming
Application of heat to the lateral chest, neck, armpits, and groin of a hypothermic patient.
active rewarming
Application of an external heat source to rewarm the body of a hypothermic patient.
passive rewarming
covering a hypothermic patient and taking other steps to prevent further heat loss and help the body rewarm itself
hypothermia
condition in which body temperature is below normal, usually below 95 F (35 C) and often in the range of 78 to 95 F (26 to 35 C)
respiration
breathing
evaporation
the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
radiation
Sending energy in waves into space
Wind Chill
chilling caused by convection of heat from the body in the presence of air currents.
Convection
Carrying away heat by currents of air, water or other gases/liqiuds
Water chill
Chilling caused by conduction of heat from the body when the body or clothing is wet.
conduction
the transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact
trauma score
a system of evaluating trauma patients according to a numerical rating system to determine the severity of the patients trauma
Multisystem Trauma
one or more injuries that affect more than one body system
Multiple trauma
more than one serious injury
Neurogenic Shock
State of shock; Nerve paralysis; Develops from spinal cord injuries
Manual traction
The process of applying tension to straighten and realign a fractured limb before splinting. Also called tension.
Crepitus
A grating or grinding sensation caused by fractured bone ends or joints rubbing together; also air bubbles under the skin that produce a crackling sound or crinkly feeling.
Compartment syndrome
injury caused when tissues such as blood vessels and nerves are constricted within a space as from swelling or from a tight dressing or cast
Open extremity injury
An extremity injury in which the skin has been broken or torn through from the inside by an injured bone or from the outside by something that has caused a penetrating wound with associated injury to the bone.
Closed extremity injury
An injury to an extremity with no associated opening in the skin.
Strain
injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse)
Sprain
Stretching / Tearing of ligaments
Dislocation
displacement of a bone from its joint
Angulated fracture
fracture in which the broken bone segments are at an angle to each outher
Greenstick fracture
incomplete fracture
Comminuted fracture
Fracture; Bone broken in several places
Fracture
Any break in a bone
Traction splint
A splint that applies constant pull along the lenght of the lower extremity to help stabilize the fractured bone and to reduce muscle spasm in the limb. Traction splints are used primarily on femoral shaft fractures.
Ligaments
tissue that connects bone to bone
Tendons
tissue that connects muscle to bone
Cartilage
Tissue; Covers joints of bones; Forms certain body parts
Muscles
tissues or fibers that cause movement of body parts and organs
Joints
places where bones connect: hinge, pivot, gliding, ball and socket
Bones
Hard; Flexible structures; Provide support to body; Protects vital organs
Extremities
limbs of the body, especially hands and feet
Evisceration
an intestine or other internal organ protruding through a wound in the abdomen
Tension pneumothorax
a type of pneumothorax in which air that enters the chest cavity is prevented from escaping
Pneumothorax
air in the chest cavity
Sucking chest wound
An open chest wound in which air is "sucked" into the chest cavity.
Paradoxical motion
movement of a part of the chest in the opposite direction to the rest of the chest during respiration
Flail chest
fracture of two or more adjacent ribs in two or more places that allows for free movement of the fractured segment.
Occlusive dressing
any dressing that forms an airtight seal
Pressure dressing
a dressing applied tightly to control bleeding
Universal dressing
bulky dressing
Bandage
a piece of soft material that covers and protects an injured part of the body
Dressing
Any material (preferably sterile) used to cover a wound that will help control bleeding and help prevent additional contamination.
Rule of palm
a method for estimating the extent of a burn. The palm of the patient's hand, which equals about 1% of the body's surface area, is compared with the patient's burn to estimate its size
Rule of nines
a method of estimating the extent of a burn. For an adult, each of the following surfaces represents 9% of the body surface: the head and neck, each upper extremity, the chest, the abdomen, the upper back, the lower back and buttocks, the front of each lower extremity, and the back of each lower extremity. The remaining 1% is assigned to the genital region. For an infant or child the percentages are modified so that 18% is assigned to the head, 14% to each lower extremity.
Full thickness burn
a burn in which all the layers of the skin are damaged. There are usually areas that are charred black or areas that are dry and white. Also called a third-degree burn.
Partial thickness burn
a burn in which the first layer of skin (epidermis) is burned through and the dermis (second layer) is damaged. Burns of this type cause reddening, blistering, and a mottled appearence. (Also called second-degree burn).
superficial burn
a burn that involves only the epidermis, the outer layer of the skin. It is characterized by reddening of the skin and perhaps some swelling. An example is a sunburn. Also called a first-degree burn.
Amputation
the surgical removal or traumatic severing of a body part, usually an extremity
Avulsion
Tearing Away
Laceration
a cut
Puncture wound
An open wound that tears through the skin and destroys underlaying tissues. A penetrating puncture wound can be shallow or deep. A perforating puncture wound has both an entrance and an exit wound.
Abrasion
scrape
Open wound
an injury in which the skin is interrupted, exposing the tissue beneath
Crush injury
an injury caused when force is transmitted from the body's exterior to its internal structures. Bones can be broken, muscles, nerves, and tissues damaged, and internal organs ruptured, causing internal bleeding
Hematoma
the collection of blood under the skin as the result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. bruise
Contusion
a bruise
Closed wound
an internal injury with no open pathway from the outside
Subcutaneous layers
the layers of fat and soft tissues found below the dermis
Dermis
second layer of skin, holding blood vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles
Epidermis
The outer layer of the skin
Neurogenic shock
Hypo perfusion due to nerve paralysis (sometimes caused by spinal cord injuries) resulting in the dilation of blood vessels that increases the volume of the circulatory system beyond the point where it can be filled
Cardiogenic shock
Shock, or lack of perfusion, brought on not by blood loss, but by inadequate pumping action of the heart. It is often the result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure.
Hypovolemic
shock resulting from blood or fluid loss
Irrevirsible shock
Body has lost the battle to maintain perfusion to vital organs; Even if it returns the patient may die days later due to organ failure
Decompensated shock
Occurs when the body can no longer compensate for low blood volume or lack of perfusion. Late signs such as decreasing blood pressure become evident.
Compensated shock
When the patient is developing shock but the body is still able to maintain perfusion.
Tourniquet
a device, usually an encircling bandage, used to cut off the flow of blood
Hemostatic agents
substances applied as powders, dressings, gauze, or bandages to open wounds to stop bleeding
Pressure dressing
A bulky dressing held in position with a tightly wrapped bandage to apply pressure to help control bleeding.
Capillary Bleeding
bleeding from capillaries, which is characterized by a slow, oozing flow of blood.
Venous bleeding
Bleeding from a vein, which is characterized by dark red or maroon blood and as a steady flow, easy to control.
Arterial bleeding
Bleeding from an artery, which is characterized by bright red blood and as rapid, profuse, and difficult to control.
Hemorrhage
Excessive bleeding; bursting forth of blood
Shock
A condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to enable every body part to perform its function; also called hypoperfusion.
Hypoperfusion
Inability of the body to adequately circulate blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients.