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Salvation by faith alone, the ministry of all believers, and the authority of the Bible are principles basic to

Lutheranism in the early 16th century

The Edict of Nantes in 1598 did which of the following?

Proclaimed the toleration of Calvinism

The sketch above, drawn by Galileo in 1610, was used to argue that the moon

has an irregular surface

"You venerate the saints and delight in touching their relics, but you despise the best one they left behind, the example of a holy life...If the worship of Christ in the person of His saints pleases you so much, see to it that you imitate Christ in the Saints". The quote above expresses the views of which of the following?

Erasmus of Rotterdam

Which of the following best describes the political and economic environment of much of fifteenth century Italy?

Many independant city-states with prosperous merchant oligarchies

The response of the Roman Catholic church to the Protestant Reformation included all of the following except

the abolition of the Index of Prohibited Books

The first political use of the terms "right" and "left" was to describe the

Seating arrangements in the French National Assembly chamber during the French Revolution

Which of the following statements best describes the writers of the Romantic school?

They stressed emotion rather than reason

in fifteenth century Europe, Muslim culture exerted the greatest influence on which of the following societies?


in 1500 the two most powerful autocracies in Eastern Europe were

Muscovy and the Ottoman Empire

The principal reason why Louis XIV (1643-1715) built his palace at Versailles was to

Tighten his control over the nobility

In the second half of the seventeenth century, which of the following countries dominated European culture, politics, and diplomacy?


Which of the following best characterizes the Western European economy, as a whole, in the sixteenth century?

Spiraling inflation

In the first half of the seventeenth century, the Austrian Hapsburgs subdued revolt and centralized control in their territories by doing which of the following?

Waging warfare against rebel groups and supporting the Catholic Reformation

Which of the following was a major result of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)

the loss of as much as one third of the german speaking population through war, plague, and starvation

After the defeat of King Charles II in the English Civil War and his execution in 1649, England was governed for a decade by

A commonwealth led by Oliver Cromwell and his son

Which of the following most clearly distinguishes the Northern Renaissance from the Italian Renaissance?

Greater concern with religious piety

Adam Smith maintained that

Competition is socially beneficial

The eighteenth century philosophes believed that society could best achieve progress through

Scientific empiricism

The model of the universe which resulted form the scientific work of Galileo and Newton embraced

the science of mechanics

The sequence of events that led to the French Revolution of 1789 is best summarized by which of the following?

Royal financial crisis, convening of the Estates General, storming of the Bastille

"The salon was a weekly gathering held in the home of one of the dominant ladies of the society, at which dinner was usually served, cards usually played, but the conversation led by the hostess predominated. A few salons were known as having the ideal mixture of leading intellectuals, open-minded nobles, and clever, elegant women" The passage above describes an important aspect of social life in which of the following?

Paris during the Enlightenment

Enlightened monarchs of the eighteenth century supported all of the following EXCEPT

Pacifist foreign policy

Which of the following characterized European warfare between the Peace of Utrecht (1713) and the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789)?

Standing armies pursuing limited strategic goals

Under the Napoleonic system, peasants in territories conquered by French armies were generally given

Freedom from manorial obligations

The French monarchy in the seventeenth century sought to expand France's borders to all its "natural frontiers" by gaining control of


Which of the following caused the deepest and most persistent internal opposition to the French Revolution?

The enactment of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Mary Wollstonecraft and John Stuart Mill both wrote

Tracts of liberty and the rights of women

According to the graph above, which class in sixteenth century England benefited most from the trends shown?


Which of the following was a primary result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688?

The limitation of monarchial power

The shaded areas on the map above represent which of the following?

dynastic lands of the Hapsburgs in the sixteenth century

All of the following were invented in Western Europe during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries EXCEPT

the flying shuttle

"It was an important confederation of commercial towns in northern Germany with it's own laws, diplomats, and flags. It's membership of merchants earned large profits shipping fish, timber, and other resources to areas to the west and to the south. Prosperity declined, however, when trade routes shifted from the Baltic to the Atlantic after 1500" The description above refers to the

Hanseatic League

in the sixteenth century, all of the following has religious civil wars or political insurrections EXCEPT

Muscovite Russia

The teachings of which of the following had the greatest impact on the Reformation in Scotland?

John Calvin

Mercantilism was principally characterized by

Government effort to build a strong, self sufficient economy

In the late seventeenth century, which of the following countries led continental Europe in shipbuilding, navigation, and commerce and banking?

The Netherlands

In eighteenth century Europe, the most important imperial rivalries existed among which three of the following?

Spain, France, and Great Britain

All of the following occurred as a result of the settlements reached at the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) EXCEPT

Italy was unified under Sardinian leadership

A social historian would be most likely to research which of the following topics?

Family life in a French village

Which of the following most accurately states Martin Luther's basic religious belief as a leader of the Protestant Reformation?

Faith is the key to salvation

During the Renaissance, humanism contributed LEAST to which of the following?

Popularization of medieval legends

Which of the following statements about Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) is true?

He was the best known skeptic of his time

"A prince should have only one end and one idea in mind, take only one subject for study, and it is war, its science and discipline, for it is the only science that deals with the ruler's problems...". In writing the passage above, Machiavelli drew on his observations of

warfare among the Italian city states

Which of the following resulted from the English Reformation?

Establishment of the English monarch as head of the Church of England

Of the following, the major political opponent of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was

Francis I of France

"And New Philosophy calls all in doubt,
The element of Fire is quite put out;
The Sun is lost, and th' Earth, and no man's wit
Can well direct him where to look for it"
These verses by John Donne (1573-1631) refer to the scientific work of


In the period from Columbus' discovery of the Americas to the American Revolution all of the following goods were imported from the New World to Europe in large quantities EXCEPT

Iron ore

Eighteenth century popularizers of the seventeenth century scientific revolution would have most likely agreed with which of the following statements?

Underlying natural laws govern society

The Council of Trent (1545-1563) was the major body through which

The Roman Catholic Church reformed itself

Which of the following is NOT true of the Edict of Nantes (1598)?

It was responsible for the St Bartholomew's Day massacre

The Dutch Republic rose to prominence in seventeenth century Europe because of which of the following factors?

Its shipping and commerce

Which of the following was most typical of preindustrial European village society?

Domestic manufacture of most household goods

According to the theory of mercantilism, colonies should be

acquired as markers and sources of raw materials

The revolt against France's increasingly centralized monarchy in 1648-1652 is generally known as


Poland's decline as a major political entity during the seventeenth century can be attributed largely to

the absence of a powerful central authority

Which of the following is true about the rulers of both Austria and Prussia during the seventeenth century?

They maintained permanent standing armies

Of the following, which setting provided unmarried women in preindustrial Europe with the greatest opportunity to exercise their literary, artistic, and administrative talents?


Which of the following was a persistent cause of agitation and protests by the Parisian lower classes in the eighteenth century?

Substantial increase in the cost of bread

Which of the following has the largest population in 1763?


"Sincerely influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, this monarch abolished capital punishment, established equality before the law, freed the serfs, created a system of primary education, established religious toleration, and tightened the control over the state of the established church"
The enlightened despot described above was

Joseph II of Austria

The primary goal of France in entering the Thirty Years War was to

reduce the power of the Hapsburgs

Which of the following is true of Fredrick William I, king of Prussia from 1713-1740?

He built a first rate army and infused Prussian society with military values

Which of the following is true of the Romantic movement in early nineteenth century Europe?

It was, in part, a reaction to the classicism of an earlier period

A major revolutionary ideal spread throughout Europe by the French armies during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods was that

careers should be open to talented individuals from all classes

during 1793-1794, Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety owed much of their influence to the support of

a group of small property owners and wage laborers in Paris who were concerned about high food prices

The Peace of Utrecht (1713-1714) altered the balance of power in Europe by

checking French expansion

Elizabeth I of England and her contemporary, Henry IV of France, have been called politiques because they believed that

theological controversy should be subordinate to political unity

Which of the following is true of Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)?

He strengthened the intendant method of local government

Which of the following best describes the Christian humanism of Erasmus?

The application of Renaissance scholarship to questions of ecclesiastical and moral reform

(LARGE DOCUMENT ABOUT NATIONAL ASSEMBLY) This document records an oath of unity taken by members of the

French Estates General in opposition to Louis XVI, thus marking the beginning of the French Revolution

(LARGE DOCUMENT ABOUT NATIONAL ASSEMBLY) This agreement is commonly known as

Tennis Court Oath

All of the following were factors in the spread of literacy during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries EXCEPT

an increase in compulsory state education

Johannes Kepler improved on Copernicus' theories by

demonstrating that the planets have elliptical orbits

One policy Peter the Great used to make Russia a great power was to

build a new capital where his nobles and merchants were obliged to settle

The principal reason England reverted to a monarchical form of government following the Interregnum of Oliver Cromwell lay in Cromwell's

inability to establish broad popular support for his government

Which of the following was the primary cause of the Habsburg-Valois feud, which dominated European international policies in the sixteenth century?

the conflicting political ambitions of the two families

Louis XIV did which of the following to provide better protection for himself and to reduce the influence of the Paris mob?

moved the government from Paris to Versailles

Which of the following contributed to the economic decline of Spain the seventeenth century?

III and IV (the debasement of the coinage, the expulsion of the Moriscos)

Historically, which of the following factors has proved LEAST necessary for making a successful revolution?

active participation of the majority of citizens

Martin Luther initially criticized the Roman Catholic church on the grounds that it

used indulgences as a fund raising device

"Religion supplies the pretext and gold the motive"
This statement was a contemporary characterization of

Spanish and Portuguese expansion in the New World

During the great witchcraft persecutions of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, those most often tried as witches were

older women

"In conformity, therefore, to the clear doctrice of the Scripture, we assert, that by an extermal and immutuble counsel, God has once for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction" The idea expressed in the passage above is most closely associated with the theological views of

John Calvin

Which of the following is true of the German Peasants Revolt of 1524-1525?

The revolt resulted from a combination of new religious ideas and peasant demands

Which of the following explorers, sailing under the flag of Portugal, reached the west coast of India in 1498 after rounding the Cape of Good Hope and crossing the Indian Ocean?

Vasco de Gama

Which of the following was an important consequence of the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689?

Limits were put on the power of the English monarchy

The Russian woodcut above (pic above this), 1698, symbolizes Peter the Great's

imposition of Western values on the Russian nobility

Couples in early modern Europe generally put off marriage until they were, on average, in their mid to late twenties because

they needed to acquire land or learn a trade before they could support a family

"The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have a right to concur either personally or by their representatives in its formation. The law should be the same fro all, whether it protects or punishes"
This quote about is a formulation of the ideas of

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Which of the following was generally supported by the mercantilists?

development of colonies

The lists of grievances, or cahiers de doleances, brought by the members of the Estates General to Versailles in 1789 called for

tax equity

Which of the following statements accurately describes the Napoleonic Code?

It protected private property and the authority of husbands within the family

Renaissance humanism drew its main inspiration from

classical languages and literature

Major Protestant and Roman Catholic leaders of the sixteenth century condemned the Anabaptists because Anabaptists

Advocated at a complete separation of church and state

Ferdinand and Isabella supported the expulsion or conversion of Muslims and Jews in Spain because

Ferdinand and Isabella were hostile to religious faiths other than Christianity

Rene Decartes and Francis Bacon contributed to scientific development in the seventeenth century by

Articulating theories of the scientific method

The leadership of the Dutch revolts (1566-1648) sought all of the following EXCEPT

an alliance with the English Catholics

(QUOTE ABOUT FARMS AND STUFF) The 18th century British quote above is a justification for which of the following?

enclosure of common lands

The long term effect of the Thirty Years War on the German states was to

devastate the German state's economies

Martin Luther believed that the most important role for a Christian woman was to

become a wife and a mother

John Calvin established the center of this reformed church in


The primary purpose of the Peace of Augsburg (1555) was to

End the civil war between Lutherans and Roman Catholics in the German states

The Scientific Revolution overturned the accepted ideas of which of the following?


Which of the following best expresses Voltaire's views concerning religion?

Organized religion perpetuates superstition and ignorance

Which of the following describes a major difference between northern humanists and Italian humanists?

Both looked to classical sources, but northern humanists also emphasized Christian sources

The system of intendants was established in 17th century France primarily to

Implement royal policies locally

The acquisition of which of the following territories during the mid 18th century helped to establish Prussia as a great power?


In early modern Europe, which of the following most directly undermined the guild system?

Entrepreneurial expansion of manufacturing into the countryside

"I will allow that bodily strength seems to give a man a natural superiority over women; and this is the only solid basis on which the superiority of men over women can be built"
This passage above best reflects the argument of

Mary Wollstonecraft

The policy of extending the French Revolution beyond beyond France's borders was most closely associated with the

Girondin party

After Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453, which of the following cities claimed to be the "third Rome"?


Which of the following was an economic policy of Louis XIV's finance minister, Jean Baptiste Colbert?

Establishing detailed manufacturing codes to improve the quality of French export goods

Just as the reign of Louis XVI of France is often cited as an example of absolutism, the reign of Joseph II of Austria is often cited as an example of

enlightened monarch

in 17th and 18th century Prussia, the Junkers supported the monarchy and served in the army in return for

Virtually absolute power over their serfs

Which of the following was the most important factor behind the Price Revolution of the 16th century?

Steady population growth and rising food costs

The gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire which occurred during the 19th century created the most serious diplomatic and political tension between which of the following?

Austria and Russia


Columbus sails for the New World


Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the church door at Wittenburg, Germany


Peace of Augsburg


Sir Francis Drake defeats the Spanish Armada


Treaty of Westphalia ending the 30 years war


Glorious Revolution


Social history- Agricultural Rev, population increase, beginning of industrialization


Beginning of the French Revolution


End of Napoleans reign, Congress of Vienna

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