39 terms

Ap human unit 4 part 2

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Suprantional organization
Cooperating groups of nations that operate on either a regional or international level
Centripetal forces
Bind together the people of a state, giving it strength
Centrifugal forces
Oppose centripetal forces. Destabilize the government and encourage the country to fall apart.
Separatist movements
Which nationalities within a country demand independence
Devolution
Decentralization of decision making to regional governments
Ethnic group
Shares a well developed sense of belonging to the same culture
Ethnonationalism
The tendency for an ethnic group to see itself as a distinct nation with a right to autonomy or independence
Geopolitics
Study of the spatial and territorial dimensions of power relationships within the global political territorial order
Friedrich ratzel
19th century geographer who theorized that a state compares to a biological organism with a life cycle from birth to death, with a predictable rise and fall of power
Heartland theory
Stated that the "pivot area" of the earths Eurasia holds the resources, both natural and human, to dominate the globe.
Rimland theory
Challenged the heartland theory in Nicholas spykmans book "the geography of peace" written in 1944
Cold War
The competition btwn 2 superpowers, the US and the Soviet Union, for control of land spaces all over the world
United Nations
Only 49 nation states signed the original chapter of this in 1945.
Since many new nations have been created since then, the membership of this has grown to 193 members by 2012
Security council
The body responsible for voting to establish a peacekeeping force in a "hotspot" and request states to contribute to military forces
NATO
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO
Formed in late 1940s with 14 European members, the U.S and Canada
Warsow pact
Opposing alliance
Began in 1955 that was composed of the Soviet Union and six Eastern European countries later disbanded
OAS
Organization Of American States
OAS
Created to promote social, cultural, political, and economic links amount member states
OAU
Organization Of African Unity
OAU
Has promoted the elimination of minority white ruled governments in Southern Africa
EU
A regional organization that promises to redefine the meaning of sovereignty
Integration
A process that encourages states to pool their sovereignty in order to gain political, economic, and social clout.
- binds states together by common policies and shared rules
Three pillars
- TheMaastricht treated established this
- also called spheres of authority
Three pillars
1)trade and other economic matters
2) justice and home affairs
3) common foreign and security policy
Monetary policy
Control of money supply, EU is able to set this
Euro
Replaced the old national currencies, excepted as a common currency both in banking and for everyday business transactions
Issues in EU
1)Organizational issues abound
2)the expansion brings many former communist countries
Democratization
Indicates growing commonalities amount nation
Characteristics of democratic states
- civil liberties
- rule of law that provides for equal treatment of citizens and due process
- neutrality of the judiciary and other checks on the abuse of power
- open civil society
- civilization control of the military
Why democracy?
-the loss of legitimacy by both right and left wing authoritarian regimes
- expansion of an urban middle class developing countries
- new emphasis on "human rights" by the U.D and European Union
Command economy
With socialist principles of centralized planning and state ownership are fading from existence, except in combination with market economies
Mixed economy
One that allows for significant control from the central government
Market economy
Issue now
- in which economic decision and the pricing of goods and services are guided solely by the interactions of a countries individual citizens and business
Marketization
Describes the states re creation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value
Privatization
The transfer of state owned property to private ownership
Fragmentation
Divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity
Politicization of religion
The use of religious principles to promote political ends and vice versa.
Dominated world policies during early 21st century
Clash of civilizations
Samuel Huntington argues that our most important and danger future conflicts will be this