31 terms

2017: Weathering, Erosion, Deposition

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landform
A natural feature on the Earth's surface.
landform examples
Four major types: mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains. Minor include: buttes, canyons, valleys, basins, deltas and many, many others.
delta
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake.
weathering
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
erosion
The process by which water, ice, wind, and gravity moves weathered particles of rock and soil.
deposition
Process in which sediment is laid down in new locations.
sediment
Solid material that is moved and deposited in a new location.
sediment examples
Rocks, minerals, the remains of plants and animals. May be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a boulder.
chemical properties
Properties that can be observed during or after a chemical reaction. Examples are how easily something catches fire (flammability), reactivity with oxygen and water, how toxic it might be.
physical properties
Properties such as color, shape, weight, mass, volume (how much space something takes up), state of matter (solid, liquid, gas).
chemical change
A change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties.
physical change
A change in the physical properties but the material is still the same material.
evidence of physical change
Evidence includes different shape, size, weight, length, or state or matter.
evidence of chemical change
Examples of evidence: an odor is produced, gas bubbles, light or smoke is seen, and color change (rusting).
mechanical weathering examples
Examples include: ice wedging, abrasion, roots growing into rock, burrowing animals.
chemical weathering examples
Examples include: oxidation, hydrolysis, reactions from plant acids.
mechanical weathering
Breaks rocks into smaller pieces without changing them chemically.
chemical weathering
The processes that chemically change the material of rocks and breaks them down.
biological weathering
Physical or chemical weathering caused by living organisms.
oxidation
When oxygen reacts with metal elements in a rock, creating a new substance. Brown/orange rust can be a clue.
hydrolysis
The chemical breakdown of a substance when combined with water.
abrasion
The wearing down of rock by friction from other rocks and particles when they bump into each other. May be caused by wind, moving water, glacier movement, and gravity.
wind erosion
Erosion caused when wind blows across loose sediments like silt and sand, lifting and carrying it.
glacial erosion
Occurs when massive sheets of ice move over Earth's surface and erode materials from some areas and deposit sediment in other areas.
water erosion
Water flowing over the earth's surface removes sediments and creates landforms such as gullies, canyons, valleys.
gravity
A cause of many types of erosion including mass movement and erosion by glaciers and water.
mass movement
When gravity alone causes rock or sediment to move down a slope. Examples include slump, creep, rock slides, and mudflows.
glacial deposition
Till (mixture of different-sized particles, ranging from clay to large boulders) and outwash (and and gravel deposits laid down by ________________ streams).
wind deposition
The dropping of sand, sediment, and rocks by wind. An example of deposition would be the creation of a sand dune.
runoff
Water that flows over Earth's surface. The more speed it has, the more material it can carry with it.
water deposition
When sediment is deposited from running water. Creates landforms such as deltas, sandbars, floodplains, alluvial fans.