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3 elements of basic emotions (interest, happiness, anger, fear, sadness)

subjective feeling, physiological change, overt behavior (facial expression)


binds parent and baby, reflexive smile (not in response to stimuli), social smile (2months, occurs in response to faces0


(first appears 7-8month) seen in stranger anxiety

self conscious emotions

(btwn 18-24 months) involes injury to/enhancement of self. (ex's= embarrassment, guilt, pride)

social referencing

(1yr) checking back and monitoring a caregiver's expression for cues as to how to behave in a potentially dangerous situation


enduring socioemotional relationship between infant and caregivers

Preattachment phase

(birth-3months) infant elicits responses; responses lay groundwork

attachment-in-the-making phase

(4-7/8 months) respond differently to different people but doesnt protest when separated from parent; soothed more easily by parent

clear-cut-attachment phase

(7/8months-3yrs) infant has singled out caregiver as special indiv and stable emotional base; now has separation anxiety

working model

(3yrs +) internal representation of the primary caregiver

secure attachment

(60%) easily comforted upon reunion

avoidant attachment

(20%) avoidance at reunion (signals caregiver is unavailable, rejecting, unrepsonsive, angry, resentful)

resistant attachment (anxious/ambivalent)

(10-15%) crying, inconsolable or angry at reunion (signals inconsistent care, unpredictable)

disorganized/disoriented attachment

(5-10%) bizarre behavior (seen in neglcted/abused kids)


caregiver and infant responding emotionally to each other in a sensitive and attuned way in secure attachment

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