APUSH Ch 7 Nationalism Terms & People

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James Fennimore Cooper
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He was a representative for South Carolina and one of the original War Hawks. He supported the Tariff Bill of 1811 because he thought the bill would lead to manufacturing in the south and cultivation of cotton. He later changed his mind, though, and opposed it because the bill was being used to enrich Northern manufacturers.
A nationalist from New Hampshire & a War Hawk in Congress in 1816. He was a strong spokesman for New England. He was involved in the Webster-Haynes debate over states' rights. He served as Secretary of State under the Tyler administration. In 1836 he ran for the Presidency as a member of the Whig party, losing to Martin Van Buren. He was America's greatest orator.
A free black slave who lived in the Carolinas and led a slave rebellion in Charleston in 1822. This slave rebellion was part of what led to the anxieties of the South especially in South Carolina. The Missouri Compromise and the slave rebellion caused the South to worry about Federal government interference in slavery.
He was the seventh president, supported mostly but the West and South (the common people). He was the hero of the Battle of New Orleans( War of 1812). He was a well known Indian fighter. He took military control of Spanish Fla. this encouraged the treaty with Spain 1819.He had no formal education. He introduced the spoil's system into American gov't, or rotation in office as he called it. His cabinet was called the "kitchen cabinet" because they were thought of as his friends, not political office holders.
Virginia DynastyThe four out of five of the Presidents were from Virginia. (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe) This "dynasty" ended in 1824.2nd Bank of the United StatesIt was a federal establishment operated by the gov't as an attempt to save the welfare of the economy after the War of 1812. It was part of Henry Clay's American System and forced state banks to call in their loans which led to foreclosures and the Panic of 1819.McCulloch v. MarylandTrial during chief Justice John Marshalls reign; involving the state of Maryland& their right to tax the federal bank--sets precedent for the "loose clause"--increased power of Fed, government.Gibbons v OgdenThis case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.Era of Good FeelingsThe years of Monroe's presidency, during 1817-1825, people had good feelings caused by the nationalistic pride after the Battle of New Orleans and second war for Independence with British. Only one political party was present, on the surface everything looked fine, but underneath it all everything was troubled, conflict over slavery was appearing and sectionalism was inevitable, Missouri Compromise had a very dampening effect on those good feelings.Monroe DoctrineAn expression of the post-1812 nationalism Where & When: Incorporated into President Monroe's annual message to Congress in 1823. Its two basic features were:(1) Non-Colonization- no further colonization in the Western Hemisphere (2) Non-Intervention- U.S. will not involve itself in European affairs. Significance: Increased patriotism, but deepened the illusion of isolationism. Many Americans falsely concluded that the Republic was isolated from the European dangers because it wanted to be."King Mob"Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy."Corrupt Bargain"Election of 1824, Immediately after John Quincy Adams became President, he appointed Henry Clay as Secretary of State. This occurred when Andrew Jackson had the most popular votes, but not enough electoral votes. Henry Clay, Speaker of the House, convinced the House to elect Adams as President. Jacksonians question whether Adams offered Clay Sec. of State as a bribe prior to the election.Eaton AffairJohn Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake, whom he later married, before her husband died in 1828. She was snubbed by the wives of Jackson's cabinet. The President wanted to help her because his wife had been the object of many rumors and tried to force the social acceptance of Peggy. This was called the "Petticoat War," which turned Jackson against Calhoun and dissolved the Cabinet. Calhoun resigned the vice presidency the next year and entered the Senate for South Carolina.Nullification crisisWhen faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the state. This was protested by Jackson.Force Bill 1833This authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified this bill.