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The perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense (Ex: when musical notes evoke the visual sensation of color)
The organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation.
when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system.
methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer's sensitivity to that stimulus... Approach developed by FECHNER (Ex of study: observer relates the measured stimulus to each observer's yes-or-no response.
The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity (Ex: JND for weights is about 2%)
Signal Detection Theory
holds that the response to a stimulus depends both on a person's sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person's response criterion (Ex: "hit" "false alarm")
The observation that sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions
Colored part of the eye; controls the size of the pupil and hence the amount of light that can enter the eye
photoreceptors that detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail
A hole in the retina which contains neither rods nor cones and therefore has no mechanism to sense light
the region of the sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron (Ex: patch of adjacent photoreceptors)
Trichromatic Color Representation
The pattern of responding across the three types of cones provides a unique code for each color
pairs of visual neurons work in opposition; red-sensitive cells against green-sensitive and blue-sensitive again yellow-sensitive
Idea that specialized brain areas, or modules, detect and represent faces or houses or even body parts
View that the pattern of activity across multiple brain regions is what identifies any viewed object
a mental representation that can be directly compared to a viewed shape in the retinal image
monocular depth clues
aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye
the difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth
the perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different locations
A structure in the inner ear that undulates when vibrations from the ossicles reach the cochlear fluid
The cochlea encodes different frequencies at different locations along the basilar membrane
The cochlea registers low frequencies via the firing rate of action potentials entering the auditory nerve
The active exploration of the environment by touching and grasping objects with our hands
Feeling of pain when sensory information from the internal and external areas converge on the same nerve cells in the spinal cord
A theory of pain perception based on the idea that signals arriving from pain receptors in the body can be stopped or gated by interneurons in the spinal cord via feedback from two directions
The three fluid-filled semicircular canals and adjacent organs located next to the cochlea in each inner ear
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