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46 terms

Psych Chapter 4

STUDY
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Synesthesia
The perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense (Ex: when musical notes evoke the visual sensation of color)
Sensation
simple awareness due to the stimulation of a sense organ
perception
The organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation.
transduction
when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system.
pyschophysics
methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer's sensitivity to that stimulus... Approach developed by FECHNER (Ex of study: observer relates the measured stimulus to each observer's yes-or-no response.
absolute threshold
the minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus
Just noticeable difference
The minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected
Weber's Law
The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity (Ex: JND for weights is about 2%)
Signal Detection Theory
holds that the response to a stimulus depends both on a person's sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person's response criterion (Ex: "hit" "false alarm")
Sensory Adaptation
The observation that sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions
Pupil
Hole in the colored part of the eye
iris
Colored part of the eye; controls the size of the pupil and hence the amount of light that can enter the eye
retina
light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball
Accomodation
the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina
cones
photoreceptors that detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail
Rods
Photoreceptors that become active only under low-light conditions
Fovea
An area of the retina where vision in the clearest and there are no rods at all
Blind Spot
A hole in the retina which contains neither rods nor cones and therefore has no mechanism to sense light
Receptive Field
the region of the sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron (Ex: patch of adjacent photoreceptors)
Trichromatic Color Representation
The pattern of responding across the three types of cones provides a unique code for each color
Color-opponent System
pairs of visual neurons work in opposition; red-sensitive cells against green-sensitive and blue-sensitive again yellow-sensitive
Area V1
The part of the occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex
Visual-form Agnosia
The inability to recognize objects by sight
Modular View
Idea that specialized brain areas, or modules, detect and represent faces or houses or even body parts
Distributed representation
View that the pattern of activity across multiple brain regions is what identifies any viewed object
Perceptual Constancy
Even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains consistent
template
a mental representation that can be directly compared to a viewed shape in the retinal image
monocular depth clues
aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye
binocular disparity
the difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth
Motion Parallax
A depth cue based on the movement of the head overtime
Ames Room
Trapezoidal room; creates an optical illusion with one large and one small person
apparent motion
the perception of movement as a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different locations
sound waves
changes in air pressure unfolding over time
amplitude, complexity, frequency
Three physical dimensions of a sound wave (alphabetical order)
Timbre
A listener's experience of sound quality or resonance
Cochlea
A fluid-filled tube that is the organ of auditory transduction
Basilar Membrane
A structure in the inner ear that undulates when vibrations from the ossicles reach the cochlear fluid
Hair Cells
Specialized auditory receptor neurons embedded in the basilar membrane
Area A1
A portion of the temporal lobe that contains the primary auditory cortex
Place code
The cochlea encodes different frequencies at different locations along the basilar membrane
Temporal Code
The cochlea registers low frequencies via the firing rate of action potentials entering the auditory nerve
Haptic Perception
The active exploration of the environment by touching and grasping objects with our hands
Referred Pain
Feeling of pain when sensory information from the internal and external areas converge on the same nerve cells in the spinal cord
Gate-control Theory
A theory of pain perception based on the idea that signals arriving from pain receptors in the body can be stopped or gated by interneurons in the spinal cord via feedback from two directions
Vestibular System
The three fluid-filled semicircular canals and adjacent organs located next to the cochlea in each inner ear
Olfactory Receptor Neurons
Receptor neurons that initiate the sense of smell

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