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Evolution

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natural theology
was dedicated toward studying the adaptations of organisms as evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a purpose
taxonomy
a system for naming species and grouping species into a hierarchy of increasingly complex categories.
Darwin's views were influenced by
fossils
Paleontology
the study of fossils, was largely developed by Georges Cuvier, a French anatomist.
Catastrophism
boundaries between strata were due to local flood or drought that destroyed the species then present.
James Hutton, a Scottish geologist
gradualism
gradualism
profound change results from slow, continuous processes
Charles Lyell
uniformitarianism
uniformitarianism
geological processes had not changed throughout Earth's history.