The study of human diversity, through time and space. Anything that humans do, anything that humans are.
Biological anthropology (physical)
human beings as biological organisms, search for human origins, genetics
The learned sets of ideas and behaviors that are acquired by people as members of a society.
Father of American Anthro, sought to show differences actually due to cultural learning. Psychic unity of mankind. Psychic unity of mankind
Early anthropologists typed cultures from least to most civilized. The belief that one's own culture is superior.
living and working with informants, trying to become culturally fluent, establishing trust and rapport.
Anthro before 1860
motives for learning were different then, wanted to learn how to hold power over others. Anthro is an arm of collonialism.
Applied ethnology (1860-1930)
typically employed as training or research specialists (for gov. etc). Practicing "value free anthro". Beaurou of American Ethnology formed in 1870s to study Native Americans
Federal Service (1930-1945)
Great depression and new deal. Employment for anthro. took off. US Gov needed info. WW2 caused large increase in employment. Very prominent in war relocation agency. Far Eastern civil affairs training school.
Value explicit stage (1945-1970)
anthropologists directly involved now. Directing new programs for social change. Value free research idea is tossed out the window. Becoming very action oriented. Want to use anthro to promote dvlpmnt and influence peoples lives positively.
Arose with Hazel Wheatman. Many people weren't getting medical coverage. Set up a system of liasons btwn cultural groups.
Policy Research (1970-present)
Anthropologists working outside of academia completely. Lack of job prospects in academia. Demand for anthro. outside of academia. Policy implications due to legislative and social change.
Human Terrain system
project to embed anthropologists with military combat units in Iraq, Afghan. Saving lives or serious ethical breach?
traits for hair color, skin color, eye color, etc. They detectable physical characteristics. Genetic source
Three great races
Mongoloid, Caucasoid, Negroid. Skin color as the primary indicator. Becomes complicated
collected human heads for measurement. Tried to prove superiority of Europeans. Promoted and Supported racial inferiority of Africans. Supporter of Slavery
Sir Francis Galton
Pioneer of Eugenics. Eugenics supports selective breeding. Eugenicists influenced passage of 1924 immigration Act in the US. Major component in Nazi Germany
Phenotypic traits unreliable for classification. Differences are a part of human adaptability. Skin color is determined by mealnin. Not about race, about adaptation. HUMANS SHARE THE SAME ANCESTRY AND FORM A SINGLE SPECIES. DIFFERENCES BASED IN BIOLOGY ARE REAL, BUT NOT ENOUGH TO CLASSIFY.
Children from mixed races automatically assume lower prestige race category. One drop rule. Assigned at birth
Race in Brazil
Psychologist Jeffrey M. Fish: Folk terminology for race is tipo (or type). People see various body features as independent variables, leading to a massive number of tipos. Tipos vary by region and language.
Ethnic groups as membership, negotiation, reinforcing boundaries. Markers of membership. Not static, malleable, flexible.
Sir William Jones
Sanskrit, Similarities with other languages. Indo-European family, Daughter languages.
Ferdinand de Saussure
Synchronic approach. Linguistics as a field emerges. Proved language was arbitrary (sounds carried no meaning)
sentences as syntax. Universal grammar. Semantics. Linguistic performance and competence. Thinks performance should be ignored and competence should be studied.
Critic of Chomsky. Argued for communicative competence. Successful communication requires more than just grammatical knowledge. Setting, audience all matter. The parole is signif. and should be studied.
the study of the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture
biological factors in which culture depends
abilities to learn, to think symbolically, to use language, and to employ tools and other products in organizing their lives and adapting to their environments.
how can we explain the geographic distribution of skin color
Natural selection, Manufacture of vitamin D in the body
members of the zoological family that includes fossil and living humans, as well as chimps and gorillas.
the group that leads to humans but not to chimps and gorillas and that encompasses all the human species that ever have existed.
Culture is contested
Different groups in society struggle with one another over whose ideas, values, goals, and beliefs will prevail
recognizes that individuals within a society or culture have diverse motives and intentions and different degrees of power and influence. Focuses on how such varied individuals through their ordinary and extraordinary actions and practices manage to influence, create, and transform the world they live in. Recognizes a reciprocal relation between culture and the individual.
embodies those beliefs, learned behavior patterns, values, and institutions that are shared by citizens of the same nation.
different symbol-based patterns and traditions associated with particular groups in the same complex society.
the exchange of cultural features that results when groups have continuous firsthand contact.
the process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems.
shifts the focus from local observations, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist.
the ethnographer puts his or her personal feelings and reactions to the field situation right in the text.
the long-term study of a community, region, society, culture, or other unit, usually based on repeated visits.
the grammatical categories of particular languages lead their speakers to think about things in different ways.
specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups.
the bthat a perceived racial difference is a sufficient reason to calue one person less than another.
describes the process of change that a minority ethnic group may experience when it moves to a country where another culture dominates.
a society combining ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization and the economic interdependence of those groups.